Bible Study Guides - Part A
1 Intro
6 Lesson 2 - WHAT IS GOD LIKE?
10 Lesson 3 - JESUS CHRIST - WHO IS HE?
25 Lesson 6 - THE TWO LAWS
Bible Study Guides - Part B
34 LESSON 8 - Christ, Our High Priest
41 LESSON 9 -The Time of the Cleansing of the Heavenly Sanctuary
49 LESSON 10 - Christ, Our Coming King
54 LESSON 11 - Man - Here and Hereafter
Bible Study Guides - Part C
61 LESSON 12 - The House of Christ
66 LESSON 13 - Bible Sanctification
73 LESSON 14 - The Holy Spirit and It's Gifts
81 A - Divisions of Scripture
82 B - Other Methods of Interpretation
85 C - Old - Type - New Covenants in Diagram
86 D - Antiochus Epiphanes and the Little Horn of Daniel 8
88 E - The Secret Rapture Theory
89 F - An Overview

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Publisher of the
"Watchman, What of the Night?" (WWN)
- 1970s
- 1980s
- 1990s
- 2000s

All the Specials and Commentaries are in the last file of the year. There are 4 files for each year: jm=Jan-Mar; aj=Apr-Jun; js-=Jul-Sep; od=Oct-Dec

WWN is a thought paper that was published monthly continuously from Jan, 1968 to the end of Dec. 2006 . by the Adventist Laymen's Foundation of Mississippi, Inc.(ALF), with William H. Grotheer as the Editor of Research & Publication.

The Nov. 1977 issue discusses "What is the "Watchman, What of the Night?"

SHORT STUDIES - William H. Grotheer -
"Another Comforter", study on the Holy Spirit
1976 a Letter and a Reply: - SDA General Conference warning against WWN.
Further Background Information on Zaire -General Conference pays Government to keep church there.
From a WWN letter to a reader: RE: Lakes of Fire - 2 lakes of fire.
Trademark of the name Seventh-day Adventist [Perez Court Case] - US District Court Case - GC of SDA vs.R. Perez, and others [Franchize of name "SDA" not to be used outside of denominational bounds.]


Interpretative History of the Doctrine of the Incarnation as Taught by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, An
- William H. Grotheer

Bible Study Guides
- William H. Grotheer

End Time Line Re-Surveyed Parts 1 & 2 - Adventist Layman's Foundation

Excerpts - Legal Documents
- EEOC vs PPPA - Adventist Laymen's Foundation

Holy Flesh Movement 1899-1901, The - William H. Grotheer

Hour and the End is Striking at You, The - William H. Grotheer

In the Form of a Slave
- William H. Grotheer

Jerusalem In Bible Prophecy
- William H. Grotheer

Key Doctrinal Comparisons - Statements of Belief 1872-1980
- William H. Grotheer

Pope Paul VI Given Gold Medallion by Adventist Church Leader
- William H. Grotheer

Sacred Trust BETRAYED!, The - William H. Grotheer

Seal of God
 - William H. Grotheer

Seventh-day Adventist Evangelical Conferences of 1955-1956
 - William H. Grotheer

SIGN of the END of TIME, The - William H. Grotheer

- William H. Grotheer

Times of the Gentiles Fulfilled, The - A Study in Depth of Luke 21:24
- William H. Grotheer

Elder William H. Grotheer



Additional Various Studies --
"Saving Faith" - Dr. E. J. Waggoner
"What is Man" The Gospel in Creation - "The Gospel in Creation"
"A Convicting Jewish Witness", study on the Godhead - David L. Cooper D.D.

Bible As History - Werner Keller

Place of the Bible In Education, The - Alonzo T. Jones

Facts of Faith - Christian Edwardson

Individuality in Religion - Alonzo T. Jones

Letters to the Churches - M. L. Andreasen

"Is the Bible Inspired or Expired?" - J. J. Williamson

Sabbath, The - M. L. Andreasen

Sanctuary Service, The
- M. L. Andreasen

So Much In Common - WCC/SDA

Daniel and the Revelation - Uriah Smith

Spiritual Gifts. The Great Controversy, between Christ and His Angels, and Satan and his Angels - Ellen G. White

Canons of the Bible, The - Raymond A. Cutts

Under Which Banner? - Jon A. Vannoy


Due to his failing health, Elder Grotheer requested that ALF of Canada continue publishing thoughts through its website which developed into frequent Blog Thought articles plus all of the Foundation's historical published works written and audio.

As of 2010, with the official closing of the ALF of USA , The Adventist Laymen's Foundation of Canada with its website www.Adventist is the only officially operating ALF branch established by Elder Grotheer worldwide.

We are thankful for the historical legacy that is now available through

The Adventist Laymen's Foundation of Canada,

The MISSION of this site -- is to make available the articles from the thought paper "Watchman, What of the Night?" It is not our purpose to copy WWN in whole.

Any portion of the thought paper may be reproduced without further permission by adding the credit line - "Reprinted from WWN, Adventist Laymen's Foundation of Canada."



"Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path" Psalm 119:105

"I am the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending " Rev 1:8 "Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you" John 15:3


Bible Study Guides

(Part C)


 Lesson #12 -- THE HOUSE OF CHRIST

p 61 -- Hebrews 3:5-6 -- Moses verily was faithful in all his house, ... But Christ as a son over His own house; whosehouse are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.

Note - Elsewhere in the New Testament, the "house of Christ" is spoken of as "the household of faith," (Galatians 6:10) and "the household of God ... built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone." (Ephesians 2:19-20)

Ephesians 2:12-13 -- Ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, ... but now in Christ Jesus ye who were sometimes far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ.

Note - In these verses. Paul is writing to Gentile converts (2:11) and indicating that when they accepted Christ, they became a part of the Commonwealth of Israel, in Christ, they became Abraham's seed and heirs of the promise given to Abraham. (Galatians 3:29) Further, Paul declared that a real "Jew" was one whose circumcision was "that of the heart, in the spirit." (Romans 2:29) And again, he indicated that mere lineal descent from Abraham did not count in regard to "the house of Christ" but "the children of the promise are counted for the seed." (Romans 9:7-8) In the New Testament, there is a "new" Israel developing - "the Israel of God." (Galatians 6:15-16)

The Gentiles were called out of pagan rites and "bondage" to the "weak and beggarly elements" of this world. (Galatians 4:3, 9) The Jews of the flesh and proselytes were called out of "the house of Moses" into "the house of Christ." This "new" Israel is called the ekklesia - or the "called out" ones. In the LXX, this word was also used to describe the "assembly" of Israel for religious purposes. (Deuteronomy 31:30) Stephen in his address before the Jewish Sanhedrin referred to the assembly of Israel at Mount Sinai as "the church in the wilderness." (Acts 7:38) Thus in the formation of the "church" or "the house of Christ" under the Now Covenant, it was Christ's objective to "reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross." (Ephesians 2:16)

Hebrews 12:22-23 -- Ye are come unto mount Sion, ... the heavenly Jerusalem, ... to the church of the first born, which are written in heaven.

Note - Paul wrote that the Jerusalem that then was, was in bondage with her children, but that the New Jerusalem which was above, "is free, which is the mother of us all." (Galatians 4:25, 26) This is the new mother into whom we are called, It is the true "mother" church. With its registry in heaven, it assembles upon earth in different places. The revelation in the New Testament is that the visible church met primarily in homes, Aquila and Pricilla had a church in their house. (Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19) One, Nymphas, as well as Philemon, had churches in their homes. ( Colossians 4:15: Philemon 2) It appears in Epheses, when Paul was no longer permitted to speak in the synagogue, he "separated the disciples" and these met in the assembly room of "the school of Tyrannus." (Acts 19:9) It must not be forgotten that the outpouring of the Holy Spirit took place in an "upper room" where the followers of Christ assembled. (Acts 1:13) The meeting place for the church at Troas must have been a similar room. (Acts 20:9)

I Timothy 3:15 -- The house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and the ground of the truth.

Note - The supreme purpose of the church is to be the pillar of the truth as it is in Jesus. (Ephesians 4:21 ) Since Jesus is the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6), His church, His house - the "new" Israel of God - will reflect that way, that truth, and that life. To depart from truth is to apostatize from Christ, and this in turn necessitates a separation from assemblies where apostasy is taught, even as Paul "separated the disciples" in Ephesus from the apostate synagogue worship.


p 62 -- I Corinthians 12:13 -- For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body.

Galatians 3:27 -- For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

Note - Baptism, by water and the Spirit, is the door into the House or Church of Christ. This experience, if genuine, usually occurs at the same time, as in the case of Jesus at His baptism.

Matthew 3:13-17 -- Then cometh Jesus unto John, to be baptized of him. But John forbade Him . . .And Jesus answering said unto him, suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness ... And Jesus, when He was baptized went up straightway out of the water: and lo, the heavens were opened unto Him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending ... upon Him.

Note - There are three points in this account of the baptism of Jesus we need to Note:  1)   Immediately following His baptism by water, as He prayed on the bank of the Jordan (Luke 3:21), the Holy Spirit came upon Jesus.   2)    In this single operation, "all righteousness" was fulfilled. Jesus, in setting before man an example, showed that by water the sins of the past were figuratively washed away, and that for the future a man was to receive the Holy Spirit as a guide into all the paths of righteousness. What more is required?   3)    Jesus declared - "It behoveth us to fulfill all righteousness." The symbolism and significance of baptism is not complete unless we understand the place of the one performing the ceremony, as it relates to the one being baptized. This last concept will be better understood as we study the next text.

Romans 6:3-5 -- Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus were baptized into His death? Therefore we are buried with Him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.

Note - In baptism, we are to be planted together in the likeness of the death of Jesus. Baptism is a burial, and a resurrection in symbolism. In this symbolism, two persons are required, even as Jesus told John - "It becometh us to fulfill all righteousness." The candidate yields himself into the hands of the attendant, even as Christ yielded Himself unto the Father; and then as God called Jesus forth from the tomb, so the attendant lifts the candidate from the watery grave to walk in newness of life. That walk is not to be by our power, but by the power of the Spirit of God. Any form of baptism which destroys this portrayal fails to set forth the true meaning of this rite given to us by Jesus. (sprinkling, infant baptism, etc.)

Acts 8:36-38 -- The eunuch said, See here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized? And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest ... And they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him.

Note - In this baptism, we have the details Note - d carefully. First, there was the desire on the part of the candidate. Secondly, a knowledge of Scripture that produced an intelligent surrender of the whole life; and thirdly, a confession of that belief. This was followed by baptism in which both went down into the water.


p 63 -- John 13:3-5, 12-17 -- Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands ... He riseth from supper ... took a towel and girded Himself. After that He poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet ... So after He washed their feet ... He said unto them, Know ye what I have done unto you? ... If I then, your Lord and Master have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.

Note - The service of humility precedes the communion service. Jesus arose from the passover supper (John 13:1), and performed the duty of a servant. He states that in so doing, He has given us an example. In the process of washing the disciples feet, Jesus told Peter, "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me." (John 13:8) It is in the communion of the bread and the wine that we partake of Christ's body and life. If not preceded by this ceremony, the other is taken in vain - "Thou hast no part with Me."

I Corinthians 11:23-29 -- For I have received of the Lord ... that the Lord Jesus the same night in which He was betrayed took bread: and when He had given thanks, He brake it, and said, Take eat: this is my body which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of Me. After the same manner also He took the cup ... saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, -in remembrance of Me. For as often as ye eat this bread and drink this cup, ye do shew forth the Lord's death till He come.

Note - There is no time set for the frequency of this service. The injunction is "as often as ye" do it. The Communion service took the place of the passover, which was celebrated once a year. While the service may be celebrated more often, none should neglect participating at least once a year in a renewal of his covenant with God.


1 Corinthians 9:13-14 -- Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple ... Even So hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.

Note - Paul here draws a comparison between the support of the ministers in the house of Moses, and those who preach the good news of the House of Christ. He declares that the Lord has ordained the same method of support. Those who share spiritual blessings in return receive back physical benefits from those thus blessed.

Leviticus 27: 30 -- And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the Lord's: it is holy unto the Lord.

Numbers 18:21 -- I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel ... for their service which they serve, even the service of the tabernacle of the congregation.

Note - The tithe is "holy unto the Lord." It was designated for the ministry of those who served in the tabernacle of the congregation. This included the Levite who cleaned the court to the High Priest who could enter the Most Holy Place. All full time service for the Lord was to be remunerated from the tithe. This is the example cited by Paul for service rendered in the house of Christ. The tithe is to cover the proclamation of the gospel, and those who proclaim it.

p 64 -- Malachi 3:8-10 -- Will a man rob God? Ye say, Wherein have we robbed Thee? In tithe and offerings. Ye are cursed with a curse; for ye have robbed Me ... Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in mine house, and prove Me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing.

Note - The objective in bringing the tithe "into the storehouse" is that "there may be meat [food] in mine house." This is not merely to provide food for those who minister in sacred things, but the ministers are to bring forth from the Word of God, that which is food for the souls of those to whom they minister. Beyond the tithe are also offerings from the nine-tenths which God permits us to call our own. We pay our tithe because we owe this. But we give our offerings which reflect our appreciation of what He so willingly provided for us in the sacrifice of the Cross of Calvary.

Matthew 24:45-46 -- Who then is a faithful and wise servant ... over his[lord's] household, to give them meat in due season? Blessed is that servant, whom his lord ... shall find so doing.

Note - It would be sheer folly to place one's tithe toward the support of those servants who feed the house of Christ contaminated [apostate] food. Then there are professed servants who serve the household food which appears appetizing but devoid of the nutriments of eternal life. To furnish tithe for this kind of food would be equally as dangerous. We, individually, have a responsibility to see that our tithe and offerings support that which is "meat in due season."


Revelation 14:12 -- Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

Note - We have heard the expression -"the communion of saints," or the fellowship of the household of God. Here in the book of Revelation we have revealed the characteristics of the saints who compose "the house of Christ" or His body. They keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. It was Jesus who proclaimed the Law of the Council of God from Mount Sinai. It was Jesus who came and lived the life of God before men. He manifested a living faith, that though He had accepted the weaknesses and nature of fallen humanity, God was able to keep Him from falling. This same allegiance to God, and faith in Him will be manifest by His "saints" as they partake of the Bread of Heaven sent forth to feed the needs of mankind.

2 John 9 -- Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son.

John 10:16 -- Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

Note - The doctrine or teaching of Christ - the voice of Jesus - brings unity to the household of faith. By abiding in the doctrine of Christ, we have both the Father and the Son, which Jesus declared to be life eternal. (John 17:3)

p 65 -- Lesson #12 -- QUIZ

1. -- The Bible speaks of two houses, the house of ____ and the house of ____.

2. -- In the New Testament the church is spoken of as the household of ____; the ____ of Israel; and the body of ____.

3. -- The Church is to be the ____ and the ____ of the truth.

4. -- The apostolic church met in ____, and in ____ rooms. They cared little for this world, because their names were ____ in ____.

5. -- The entrance into the house of Christ is by ____ in the ____ and in the ____.

6. -- Baptism, properly conducted, represents the ____, ____, and ____ - ____ of Jesus Christ.

7. -- The ceremonies of the Church which relate to the communion service are three: the service of ____; the communion of the _____, and the communion of the ____.

8. -- The Divine basis for the support of the ministry of the house of Christ is through ____ and offerings. The tithe is ____ unto the Lord, and represents one ____ of our increase. To default in our tithes brings a ____ but to pay our tithes and offerings brings a ____.

9. -- The purpose of the tithe is to provide ____ for the household of God. Faithful servants provide "meat in ____ _____ " for the members of God's household.

10. -- To have the doctrine of Christ is to have both the ____ and the ____.

11. -- The marks of the saints who compose the true house of Christ are: 1) They keep the ____ of God, and 2), They keep the ___ of Jesus.

12. -- Unity will be achieved among the professed people of God, when each and all are willing to ____ the ____ of Jesus. TOP


p 66 -- I Thessalonians 4:3, 7 -- For this is the will of God, even your sanctification . . .For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness.

I Thessalonians 5:23 -- And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly: and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Note - Many conceive of sanctification as something related only to the spiritual life. However, Bible sanctification takes in the whole man - mentally, spiritually, and physically. The total man is to be preserved blameless unto the coming of Jesus Christ. Why is God interested in the body of man as well as the spiritual perceptions of a man? Observe the following verses.

I Corinthians 6:19-20 -- What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? For ye are bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's.

Note - When Christ came to redeem us, He did not die for our spiritual nature alone, but purchased our bodies as well for a dwelling place of His Spirit. We, therefore, are not our own, and when we yield our lives to Him, He intends that by sanctification - the act of being set apart our habits, our dress, our all will reflect, not our vanity but His character.

Romans 12:1-2 -- I beseech you ... that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God. ... And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is ... [the] perfect will of God.

Note - Here Paul again presents the three aspects of the whole man. He indicates that harmony with God's purposes involves a ladder of progression. Our bodies are to be a "living sacrifice;" in other words, there is to be a denial of self. In our habits of life, conduct, dress, eating, and drinking, the world's standards are not our criteria. To understand this, our minds must be renewed. We are to see things differently. With our bodies freed from the customs of the world, and our minds renewed to see things as God sees them, then we can prove (understand) the will of God for us. The emphasis will not be on sanctification per se, but on the objective to be realized, an understanding of God, and a daily fellowship with Him as His child.


John 15:3 -- Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.

John 8:31-32 -- If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.

Note - Freedom from the fanciful ideas of man; freedom from the vain traditions and commandments of men can come only through a knowledge of TRUTH. Jesus has declared truth to be the Word of God. He prayed - "Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth." (John 17:17) That word is to be found in our Bibles. But if we do not study them daily, what good do we receive by mere

p 67 -- profession of that Word? Through the study of the Bible, our spiritual perceptions can be sanctified wholly; and in our beliefs, we can be blameless before God.

Section #3 -- THE MIND OF MAN

Philippians 2:5 -- Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus.

Hebrews 1:9 -- Thou has loved righteousness, and hated iniquity.

Note - Our mental attitudes must reflect the same concepts which Jesus had. He loved, but He also hated. A "negative" attitude is not wrong when applied in the right perspective. It will produce "positive" results. The proper use of hatred can be a virtue. We are to hate evil, iniquity, even the devil himself and all that he stands for. We cannot take a condoning and condescending attitude toward that which is wrong. We must take a bold stand - hatred of all iniquity in whatever guise it appears. Only in this way can we be sure to keep away from it. If a child hates a certain item of food, how successful is a parent to get that child to eat it? If as a child of God, I hate sin, how successful will the enemy be in getting me to commit sin? On the other hand, if I love righteousness, how difficult will it be to perform?

Philippians 4:8 -- Finally brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.

Note - Here is a list of checks and balances by which to govern that which comes into the mind. It definitely excludes movies produced in Hollywood style no matter where they are shown. Books of fiction, since they are not true, are not found on a Christian's reading list. This verse can also serve as a guide to regulate what we listen to on the radio, see on television, and read in the newspapers.

Section #4 -- THE BODY OF MAN

1 Corinthians 10:31 -- Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.

Note - The things we eat, the things we drink, the things we do, must be such as to glorify God: and not distract from Him, Whom we profess to serve. We shall therefore Note - carefully what the Bible says about food, drink, and conduct as it pertains to one professing godliness.

Proverbs 20:1 -- Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging: and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise.

Isaiah 5:11-14 -- Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them ... Therefore hath hell enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure.

Note - The downfall of nations in past ages, besides the ruin of individuals, was due in a great measure to the drinking habits of rulers and people. This same evil is still present today. Many believe that moderation in the use of light "spirits, " such as beer, will produce no harm. But anything that will impair one's rational judgment, and lead one to do, say, or act contrary to the glory of God is sin!

p 68 -- Isaiah 55:2 -- Wherefore do ye spend your money for that which is not bread? and your labor for that which satisfieth not? Hearken diligently unto Me, and eat that which is good.

Note - There are things that we drink that have no food value, but which produce harmful effects on the body. Such is the use of tea, coffee, and soft drinks containing caffeine. Caffeine supplied by the free and common use of these drinks, is one of the most destructive of the known causes of cardiovascular disease.            "Tea, in addition to caffeine, has another harmful constituent, tannic acid, which has a pronounced astringent effect upon the digestive organs. This action is detrimental to digestion as it retards the circulation in the area it touches." (The New Dietetics)

Isaiah 66: 15-17 -- For, behold the Lord will come with fire ... and the slain of the Lord will be many. They that sanctify themselves ... eating swine's flesh, and abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the Lord.

Note - In the matter of eating the unclean foods, we may assume that this will not effect our sanctification, but in our diet we must meet the Divine outline. Further, the differentiation between the clean and the unclean, according to this text, is still in effect from God's viewpoint, at the second coming of Jesus. It did not cease at the Cross.

I Corinthians 3:16-17 margin -- Know ye not that ye are the temple of God ... If any man destroy the temple of God, him shall God destroy.

Note - One of the most deadly habits today, involving both men and women, is the habit of smoking. Medical research has established beyond the realm of doubt, that smoking is a cause for lung cancer. If I, therefore, continue to indulge a habit that destroys my body, God will require me to give an account, for my body has been purchased by the blood of Jesus on Calvary.

I Timothy 2:9-10 -- In like manner also, let women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; but (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.

Note - The phrase - "with shamefacedness and sobriety" - in the Greek expresses the thought of a restraint in adornment which reflects a sound mind. In other words, the face and the apparel should reveal an inward character based on true godliness. Godliness is simply - God-like-ness. The additives so often used on the face, or in the hair fail to reveal the godliness, God requires. Also much modern apparel cannot by any stretch of the dictionary meaning of the word, be classified as modest.

I Peter 3:3-5 -- Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, or the wearing of gold, or putting on of apparel; but let it be the hidden man of the heart ... For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves.

Note - Peter sets forth that the Now Testament regulations on dress for women is the same as the dress standards of the holy women of Old Testament times. By contrast to the standards of the "holy women," Isaiah describes certain "daughters of Zion" who have departed from the simple dress God intended. In his list of the vanities worn by those who left the simple mode of dress are rings, earrings, bracelets, and other ornaments. (Isaiah 3:16-23)

I John 2:15-17 -- Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. For all that is in the world ... is not of the Father.

p 69 -- Note - There are things which we do for relaxation and recreation. There must be a diversion from the "grind" of life. The Christian seeks to discern between that which tends to destroy his appreciation for the things of God, and that which encourages him in the onward march to the kingdom of God. Dancing, card-playing, pool, billiards, and various other types of games of a similar nature are not in keeping with the goals of a Christian seeking sanctification. On the other hand, there are many things - hobbies, nature excursions, and simple games - which Christians can do, and enjoy doing. In fact witnessing to the truth can be made the highest type of "routine change."

John 17:15-16 -- I pray not that Thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that Thou shouldest keep them from the evil [which is in the world]. They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

Note - In this high priestly prayer, Jesus summarizes the whole purpose and objective of Bible sanctification. We are living here in the world, but we do not partake of the things of the world. Jesus came into this world, but the world knew that He was not like them. He came as the light of the world, and so we should be in this generation. But, it we do as they do, eat as they eat, drink as they drink, dress as they dress, will there be any difference between us and the world? By our fruits we shall be known. It is the outward appearance of the tree - the fruit it bears - that tells what kind of a tree it is.

Colossians 1:12-13 -- Giving thanks unto the Father ... who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of His dear Son.

Note - The phrase - "hath translated us" - denotes something which has been accomplished into which we have now entered. As followers of the Son of God, we have a citizenship in the kingdom which is above. As citizens of that kingdom, we should represent it in all that we do. While living in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, following World War II, I became aware of a group of people from Eastern Europe known as "D. P.'s - Displaced Persons. They were different in their habits of life, in their dress, and in their mannerisms. They reflected their "fatherland"! Having met some of them, I said to myself - "I am a D.P.; my home is in heaven." Then I asked myself. "Do people, when they meet me, talk with me, visit me, see in my life that I am not of this world?"

Lesson #13 -- QUIZ

1. -- God's desire for us is that we should be ____. This includes the whole ____.

2. -- A knowledge of ____ frees us from vain traditions leading to the sanctification of our ____ perceptions.

3. -- We are to have the mind of Christ, who ____ righteousness and ____ iniquity.

4. -- List three common drinks which contain caffeine: 1) ____; 2) ____; and 3) ____.

5. -- In the Bible, God classifies the eating of pork with the eating of ____. Give the text: ____ ____:____ - ____.

6. -- What one word should characterize all of our dress? ____.

p 70 --

7. -- The principle that governs the Christian in his recreational pursuits is stated by John in these words - "____ not the ____ , neither the things in the ____ ; for all that is in the ____ is not of the ____.

8. -- Jesus did not pray that we should be separated from society, but that we be kept from all the ____ which permeates the social world.

9. -- When an individual becomes a true Christian, and submits his life and plans wholly to God, he becomes a ____ ____ as far as this world is concerned.

10. -- The great objective of God upon which all sanctification is built is the fact that having been bought with a price, our bodies are to be the ____ of the Holy ____. TOP


Section #1 -- The Diet of Man

Genesis 1:29 -- Behold I have given you every herb, bearing seed ... and every tree, in which is the fruit of the tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat [food].

Note - In the purity of Eden, God gave to man for his diet, . grains, fruits and nuts.

Genesis 3:18 -- Thou shalt eat the herb of the field.

Note - After sin entered the world. God added herbs of the field to the diet of man. This would include vegetables and other leafy plants which aid man in the maintenance of body health. The Edenic diet, with the added herbs, constituted the divinely appointed regimen for the first 1600 years of human history.

Genes is 9:3-4 -- Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat [food] for you; even as the green herb I have given you all things. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

Note - After the flood, with the vegetation largely destroyed. God permitted man the use of the flesh of animals for food. . . In doing so, He prohibited the use of blood. The blood was to be removed before it was to be eaten. With this change in diet came also a change in the life span of man. Before the flood, one man lived to be 969 years of age. (Genesis 5:27) By the time of Terah, father of Abraham, the life span had been shortened to 205 years. (Genesis 11:32)

Leviticus 11:2-3, 9 -- These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat . . .These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.

Note - In the call of the children of Israel from Egypt, God designed that they should be a holy people unto Himself. (Exodus 19:5-6) In setting them apart, He restricted their diet to the clean animals only. The distinction between clean and unclean was known at the time of the flood. (Genesis 7:2)

p 71 -- Leviticus 7: 23, 26 -- Ye shall eat no manner of fat, of ox, or of sheep, or of goat ... Moreover ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings.

Note - Besides restricting the diet in the matter of flesh to that of clean animals, God also prohibited the use of animal fat and blood, even though it be from the clean animals. This diet with the above prohibitions, continued through the rest of the time covered in the Bible.

Acts 15:28-29 -- For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us ... that ye abstain from meats [foods] offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication.

Note - In the decision of the first Christian Church Council, the prohibition that God placed upon Israel relative to the use of blood was confirmed, with the affirmation of the Holy Spirit. To this was added the prohibition of all foods offered to idols.

Revelation 14: 6-7 -- And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel ... saying ... Worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of water.

Note - In the final message that God gives to the world is the call to return to the God who "made."

Our attention is directed back to creation. As one studies the record of that first perfect existence, he comes face to face with the original diet of man. While the Bible plainly permits the use of the flesh of clean animals for food, it also sets before man the ideal in diet. As man responds to the call to return to the Creator-God, his dietary goal will be to achieve as closely as possible, the original plan.

Section #2 -- Christian Forbearance

Romans 14:1-2 -- Him that is weak in the faith receive ye ... For one believeth that he may eat all things: another, who is weak, eateth herbs.

Note - The Apostolic Church had problems over diet. This is evidenced that at the first Council, three-fourths of the actions taken involved dietary items. The same subject was agitated in the church at Corinth. (I Cor. 8) In Paul's counsel to that church regarding food offered to idols, he wrote - "Take heed lest by any means this liberty of yours become a stumblingblock to them that are weak." (Verse 9) Then he added how he personally would respond in conduct - "If meat (food) make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest make my brother to offend." (Verse 13) Paul operated from the principle that if one should cause a weak brother to stumble and be lost by his example, then in reality he had sinned against Christ. (verses 11-12) The same problem evidently existed at Rome. How did he address it?

Romans 14:4 -- Who art thou that judgest another man's servant? To his own master he standeth or falleth.

Note - Paul here uses the master-servant relationship, but let us vary the comparison. While in Christ, we are all brothers and sisters, we are also sons and daughters of God because of Christ's identification with us as an Elder Brother. This latter relationship makes us answerable to God. It is not ours to judge another son or daughter's relationship to the Parent. We are to exercise Christian forbearance one to another to edify and uphold one another. This Paul concluded in his advice to the Romans. He wrote - "So then everyone of us shall give an account of himself to God. Let us not therefore judge one another any more: but judge this rather, that no man put a stumblingblock or an occasion to fall in his brother's way." (Rom. 14:12-13)

p 72 -- Romans 14:17 -- For the kingdom of God is not meat [food] and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit.

Note - Too many in the area of Christian conduct - Bible sanctification - major in minors, and minor in majors. We seek to play the role of the Holy Spirit in bringing conviction to our brother or sister to have them do precisely the way we see one should eat, drink, and dress. Let the Holy Spirit do the work assigned by Christ to lead into all truth, and to encourage growth in the things Of God - righteousness, peace, and joy. (John 16:13; II Thess. 2:13)

Romans 14:22 -- Hast thou faith? Have it to thyself before God. Happy is he that condemneth not himself in that thing which he alloweth.

Note - In the area of diet - as well as in all other reforms - there are those who are convicted they should practice many things not commanded in the Bible. In some cases extreme fanaticism develops. Those who hold to these extreme views seek to rein everyone else up to their perception of what constitutes adherence to the "faith." Paul stated that if you are so convicted, have it to yourself before God. If, however, one believes himself at liberty to live free from such severe restrictions, he must consider lest what he allows, condemn him. The bottom line remains - "For food, destroy not the work of God." Romans 14:20) Exercise forbearance.

Section #3 -- The Wedding Ring

I Corinthians 10:20-21 -- But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God... Ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and the table of devils.

Note - Paul has set forth a vital principle in this text. Those who sit at the table of the Lord, which is the communion table, on which was placed the symbols of the New Covenant, cannot in their life and practice wear the symbols of, or take part in the pagan rites of the "Gentiles." To do so is to worship the devil. The use of the wedding ring stems from the most licentious rites of paganism, and was connected with the pagan worship of the reproductive organs. The following two quotations Note - its pagan origin:

"Confiding then in the power of Christianity to resist the infection of evil and to transmit the very instruments and appendages of demon worship to an evangelical use... the rulers of the Church from early times were prepared, should the occasion arise to adopt, or imitate, or sanction the existing rites and customs of the populace... We are told in various ways by Eusebius, that Constantine, in order to recommend the new religion to the heathen, transferred into it the outward ornaments to which they had been accustomed in their own... The use of temples, and these dedicated to particular saints; ... holy water... sacerdotal vestments, the tonsure, the ring in marriage... are all of pagan origin, and sanctified by their adoption in to the church." (J. H. Cardinal Newman, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, pp. 371-372, 373. Emphasis mine)

"The wedding ring is an optional part of the marriage ceremony. If the bride doesn't wish to wear one, it isn't required. The ceremony is valid should she choose to delete, "With this ring, I thee wed." Actually the giving and receiving of a wedding ring is a pagan custom, simply added to church ceremony." (Eileen Morris, "Weddings Can Be Different," Chatelaine, April, 1949. A Woman's Journal published in Canada) TOP


2 Peter 1:21 -- Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

Note - Our Bible, the revelation of the will of God to men, is the work of the Holy Sprit. The Third Person of the Council of God used the human instrument simply as a means to convey the thoughts of God to men. This fact is attested in other texts such as Acts 1:16, where Peter stated that the Scripture needed to be fulfilled which "the Holy Spirit by the mouth of David spoke." The testimony of David reads - "The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and His word was in my tongue." (II Samuel 23:2)

John 16:12-13 -- I have many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth is come, He will guide you into all truth.

Note - Jesus wanted to convey to the disciples the fulness of divine revelation, but they could not bear it: so He assured them that the Holy Spirit would come and guide them into all truth. This Holy Spirit would reveal Jesus in His fulness (John 16:14), and would abide with them forever (John 14:16). Now the Bible, which is the primary and fundamental revelation of God to man, was written over a period of time from Moses about 1500 BC to John about 100 A.D. Now the question comes - Did the Holy Spirit cease to guide into the truth after 100 A.D.? If He was to abide forever with the followers of Christ, how has that guidance been known and understood?

Ephesians 4:8,11-13 -- When He [Jesus] ascended up on high, He ... gave gifts unto men ... And He gave some, apostles; and some prophets; and some, evangelists; and some pastors and teachers; ... till we all come to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.

Note - In these verses are listed five gifts of the Spirit which were to continue until we reach the "measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." This will be when Jesus returns the second time. (I John 3:2-3) Here then, is another testimony to the fact that when the Spirit was sent, He was to abide with the people of God "forever."

The meaning of the word, apostle, is one who is sent. Such a one is sent with authority. (Matthew 10: 1; Luke 9:1 ; Galatians 2:8-9) A prophet is one who speaks forth for God; he is to be God's mouthpiece in the assembly of the saints. The meaning of the others gifts - evangelists, pastors and teachers - is well known. The most controversial of all the gifts is the gift of prophecy. How to relate it to the primary revelation of God in the Holy Scriptures raises many questions and problems. Yet this gift is especially Note - d in Bible prophecy itself as playing an important role in the end times of human history.

Revelation 12:17; 19:10 -- And the dragon ... went to make war with the remnant ... which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus. - - - The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

Note - The end time people of God not only hear the voice of God in His law, and respond by keeping those commandments, but they also have the continued voice of Jesus which He promised to be in His household through the Spirit till the end of time. The Spirit of prophecy is not a set of writings, but the coming of the Holy Spirit upon human instrumentalites endowing them with power to speak forth for Jesus - His testimony.

p 74 -- Isaiah 11:11-12, 16 -- And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set His hand again a second time to recover the remnant of His people.

... And there shall be an highway for the remnant of His people ... . like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.

Note - The ancient prophet looked forward to the gathering of a remnant. The book of Revelation indicates this to be the remnant "seed of the woman" - the woman symbolizing the heavenly Jerusalem, the "church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven." (Compare Hebrews 12:22-23: Jeremiah 6:2-3; and Isaiah 51:16) This final gathering will be "like as" it was when Israel was brought out of Egypt.

Hosea 12:13 -- And by a prophet the Lord brought Israel out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he preserved.

Note - in both the Old and New Testaments, in speaking of the final group of God's people on the earth, it is stated clearly that prophetic guidance will be restored to lead them through the final conflict of earth's history.


Acts 13:1-2 -- Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers ... As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Spirit said ...

Acts 21:8-9 -- We entered into the house of Philip the evangelist ... and the same man had four daughters which did prophesy.

Acts 21:10 -- And as we tarried there many days, there came down from Judea a certain prophet, named Agabus.

Note - These verses mention various prophets, but we do not have in the Bible a Book of Agabus, nor a Book of the Four Daughters of Philip. However, these prophets are mentioned in connection with one who wrote more of the books of the New Testament than any other single person. Further, Agabus is given a message for Paul. (Acts 21:11) Here we see the work of non-canonical prophets - their work is local with specific guidance for individuals and groups, meeting local conditions. (See also Acts 11:27-30)


I John 4:1 -- Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits, whether they be of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

Note - For everything genuine, Satan has his counterfeit. Because there is the false, is this justification for not seeking the true? There are tests by which we may try the "spirits" and discern the true from the false. If we are willing to follow these tests, we shall not be led into error.

Isaiah 8:20 -- To the law and to the testimony, if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

p 75 -- Note - The Law and the testimony concerning that Law - the rest of the Scriptures - constitute the standard by which all manifestation of spiritual gifts are to be evaluated. It was the Holy Spirit which inspired the sacred Word in harmony with the principles of God's government. Therefore, all spiritual gifts will conform to that which has been previously spoken and written. That by which something is judged is greater than the thing judged, so likewise the Sacred Scriptures maintain ever their primacy over any other manifestation of the Holy Spirit.

Daniel 10:15-17 -- And when he had spoken such words to me, I set my face toward the ground, and I became dumb. And behold, one ... touched my lips: then I opened my mouth and spake ... 0 my lord, by the vision ... I retained no strength. For how can the servant ... talk ... for as for me ... there remaineth no strength in me, neither is there breath left in me.

Note - Here in this book of Daniel sealed - set apart till the time of the end (Daniel 12:4) - is to be found a detailed experience of what occurs physically when in vision, or receiving a revelation. In Daniel's body, there was no breath, yet he could speak. This reveals the complete control of the individual, even to one of his very vital [life] signs, by the Holy Spirit when used as an instrument to convey the thoughts of God to men.

Relationship Between Bible and Spiritual Gifts - How Viewed

The Bible is a perfect and complete revelation. It is our only rule of faith and practice. But this is no reason, why God may not show the past, present, and future fulfillment of His Word, in these last days, by dreams and visions; according to Peter's testimony. True visions are given to lead us to God, and His written Word; but those that are given for a new rule of faith and practice, separate from the Bible, cannot be from God, and should be rejected. (A Word to the Little Flock, p. 13)

(See Appendix F for further in depth study concepts) TOP

p 76 -- ---Appendix A -- DIVISIONS OF SCRIPTURE

The Old Testament is arranged into five sections:

1 ) -- Pentateuch (Genesis - Deuteronomy) [written by Moses]

2) -- History (Joshua - Esther)

3) -- Poetry (Job - Song of Solomon)

4) -- Major Prophets (Isaiah - Daniel)

5) -- Minor Prophets (Hosea - Malachi)

The New Testament is likewise divided into five sections:

1) -- The Gospels (Matthew - John)

2) -- History (Acts of the Apostles)

3) -- Pauline Epistles (Romans - Hebrews)

4) -- General Epistles (James - Jude)

5) -- Prophecy (Revelation)

The Old Testament was written in Hebrew with the exception of a few chapters in Ezra (4:8 to 6:18; 7:12-26) and Daniel (2:4 to 7:28), which were written in Aramaic. There are modern Jewish scholars who contend that the whole of the book of Daniel was originally written in Aramaic. (H. Louis Ginsberg, Studies in Daniel, p. 41) Aramaic was the official language of the civilized world up to the time of the Macedonian conquests under Alexander the Great, and was the official language of the Neo-Babylonian and Persian Empires.

The New Testament appears to have been written in Greek, although there are some scholars who contend that some of the Gospels could have been written in Aramaic and then translated into the Greek. Jesus spoke Aramaic, and it is still a living language used in certain parts of the Near East, now known as Syriac.

The Hebrews divided the Old Testament into just three sections - The Torah or the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. These divisions are reflected in the New Testament, and when understood helps one to better evaluate the New Testament writer's quotes from the Old Testament.

In Luke 24:27, where Jesus' conversation with the two on the way to Emmaus is recorded, it is stated that Jesus "beginning at Moses [the Torah] and all the prophets, ... expounded unto them in all the scriptures (graphais - writings) the things concerning Himself." Later that night, Jesus told the ones in the upper room that "all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses (the Torah, the first five books of Moses), and in the prophets, and the Psalms (the first book in the section of Writings, and thus standing for the whole of that section)" concerning Him. (Luke 24:44)

In Luke 2:22-23 where reference is made first to Exodus 13:2, and then to Leviticus 12:8, it is stated as being "written in the law of the Lord." However, when Paul quoted from Deuteronomy 25:4, he indicated he was quoting from "the Law of Moses." (I Corinthians 9:9) Then when Paul referred to what Isaiah had written (28:11-12) he stated - "In the law it is written." (I Corinthians 14:21) Even Jesus in quoting the Psalms (82:6) asked - "Is it not written in your law?" (John 10:34) Thus the term, law, was used to cover the entire Old Testament at times, even though technically it referred primarily to the first five books written by Moses. TOP


The history of any church body is also the history of its interpretation of Scripture. By implication a shift or change in the method used for interpretation of Scripture by a church, its scholars, or others within it inevitably would be accompanied by a shift or change in its course, doctrines, self -understanding, purpose, and mission. (Biblical Interpretation Today , p. 1)

During the first fourteen hundred years of the Christian era, two methods of Biblical interpretation competed for acceptance. One was developed at Antioch in Syria known as the grammatical -historical method. This school of thought insisted on the literal sense or meaning of the Scripture, and placed emphasis on grammatical studies. In contrast to this approach the school at Alexandria in Egypt adopted an allegorical method which claimed that all Scripture had a spiritual meaning, but not all had a literal meaning. Thus of the two, the most important was the spiritual. The concepts of the school at Antioch were eclipsed by the Alexandrian perceptions; however, during the Reformation these were revived as a basis for an understanding of the Word of God by Luther and the other Reformers - Calvin, Zwingli, and Melanchthon.

Following the Reformation period, arising out of the age of Enlightenment and rationalism in the 18th Century, a critical method known as the historical-critical method, developed. This became the method of interpreting the Bible by modern Protestantism. Its objective was to destroy the conservative orthodox view of Biblical truth and history. Today certain scholars trained in this method, and who used it, now declare it "bankrupt" and having run its course must be considered to be at an "end." This method reduced the Bible to a dead letter And destroyed faith in its divine origin.

"Until about 1940, practically all Adventist Bible study relied on what is known as the proof text method. Today, most non-scholars in the church still follow that method, whereas almost all Bible scholars follow the historical method. The SDA Bible Commentary in the fifties (1952-57) was the first major Adventist publication to follow the historical method as its guiding principle." (Spectrum, Vol. 11, #2, pp. 17-18)

This same writer (Raymond F. Cottrell) in a way which demeans the "proof-text" approach compared the two methods. He wrote:

The proof text method of Bible study consists of a study of the Bible in translation (English for instance), of reliance on the analogy of Scripture on the verbal level with little if any attention to context, of giving, at best, inadequate attention to the historical setting of a statement or message and what it meant to the people of its own time, and of permitting subjective preconceptions to control conclusions arrived at deductively.

By contrast, the historical method consists of a study of the Bible in its original languages, of accepting the literary context of every statement and message as normative for its meaning, of determining what the messages of the Bible meant to the various reading audiences to which they were originally addressed, in terms of the intention of the inspired writer and the Holy Spirit, of accepting that original meaning as a guide to an accurate understanding of their import for us today, and of reasoning inductively, arriving at conclusions on the basis of evidence. (Ibid. p. 18)

There is nothing wrong with the study of the Bible in the original languages. It is to be commended. In fact, through the Review and Herald in the last decade of the previous Century, an attempt was made to give instruction in New Testament Greek for the ministry and laity of the Church alike. Neither is it wrong to

p 78 -- B-2

understand the context in which a passage of Scripture was written and the message intended for the one or ones for whom it was written. BUT, it must be kept in mind that the Holy Spirit was giving, in many instances, messages for a different time and in a different context. Further, the Divine instruction in doctrinal concepts was laced throughout the entire Bible. These statements must be brought together so as to formulate a complete and accurate concept of a given doctrine.

All of this points up the simple fact that we need to know beyond question what we believe, and why we believe it, based upon the Bible as the sole and infallible source of truth. And the method of interpretation one uses will determine how he will arrive at the formulation of that truth. TOP


Connected with the historical-critical method of interpreting the Bible are various approaches which have been used by modern scholars to find what could be called the "bottom line" in determining the origin of the written Word. To familiarize you with these names and the meaning of the terms used, we list the following:

Source Criticism attempts to discover the sources of a passage of Scripture. It assumes    "that the production of Scripture was conditioned historically not only by the fact that it had combined documents with a prior history of their own, but also that wider movements in human life had influenced their content." (Tucker, Form Criticism, p. iv.)

Form Criticism attempts to discover the literary style and structure of a unit of literature as it relates to the sociological setting out of which it arose. It     "presupposes that, however unwittingly, all Israelites over many centuries contributed to the making of the Bible; that it was simply a result of their having had a communal existence as Israelites." (Ibid, p. vi)

Tradition Criticism attempts to trace the process by which a piece of literature moved from stage to stage until it reached its final form. It     "assumes that the whole community, in all expressions of its existence, participated in giving shape to the tradition and in handing it on, generation after generation." (Ibid.)

-- B-3

Redaction Criticism attempts to discover and describe the theological themes on the basis of which the redactor selected, modified, and shaped the materials in their final form. It "assumes that the final collector(s) of the document was himself an author working within and conditioned by a specific socio-political-economic religious life setting."

With all of these methods at work, one can well understand how the Word of God has been reduced to a dead letter in apostate liberal Protestantism by adopting even in a modified form some of these approaches.

(The data for this essay was taken for the most part verbatim from the illustrated appendix of the syllabus - Current Issues and Revelation-Inspiration - by E. Edward Zinke, prepared for the 1985, . World Ministers Council, New Orleans. LA.) TOP


1 . -- Adam -----2. -- Sinai -----3. -- Golden Calf --------4. -- Cross of Christ -------------

1. -- God gave to Adam a "commanded" covenant. (Gen. 2:16-17). Obey: -- Live; Disobey: -- Die. Adam broke the covenant. (Hosea 6:7 margin) Christ stepped in, and God made a covenant with Him and with man. (Gen. 3:15; Rev. 13:8) This was the New Covenant when ratified at Calvary. (Heb. 9:12-15)

2. -- At Mt. Sinai, God entered into a covenant with Israel which contained no provision for mercy. It was Obey: -- Live; Disobey: -- Die. (Ex. 20:22; 24:8; Note - 23:20-21) Within forty days Israel broke the covenant. (Ex. 32:1-6)

3. -- Moses interceded for Israel. (Ex. 32:30-32) God then made a Covenant with him and with Israel. (Ex. 34:10, 27) Under this Covenant the typical sanctuary functioned. (Ex. 25:.8-9) The book of Hebrews refers to this relationship as the house of Moses. (Heb. 3:2-5)

4. -- All reality finds its end in Christ. He is the Seed of the woman, the antitype of Moses, the great High Priest, and Mediator of the New Covenant. Christ is the "Son over His own house." (Heb. 3:6) TOP


The reason for discussing Antiochus Epiphanes in relationship to "the little horn" of Daniel 8 is that most modern prophetic commentators consider this Seleucid king as the fulfillment of the prophecy of "the abomination of desolation." ["Transgression of desolation" (8:13); "the abomination that maketh desolate" (11:31; 12:11)]

Antiochus Epiphanes was the eighth ruler in the Seleucid dynasty which arose out of the divisions of Alexander the Great's Empire. This dynasty was more or less continuous from 312-65 BC Son of Antiochus the Great, Antiochus Epiphanes reigned from 175-164 BC He designated himself as Theos Epiphanes - "God Manifest." A devotee of Zeus, probably perceiving himself as an incarnation of this chief deity, he sought the advancement of Greek culture and religion throughout the regions he controlled. This brought him into direct conflict with the Jews. He wrought the most damage upon the city of Jerusalem since the siege and destruction by Nebuchadnezzar. His most provocative act toward the Jews was the desecration of the Temple by offering a pig on the sacred altar, and forcing the people to eat of the sacrificed swine. In I Maccabees 1:54, it is stated - "They builded an abomination of desolation upon the altar." Three years later to the day a new altar was "dedicated afresh." (4:53-54) These historical facts form the basis for the identification of Antiochus Epiphanes as "the little horn" of Daniel 8. A review of the specifications of the prophecy and the statement of Jesus Himself negate such an interpretation.

Daniel 8 begins with a vision of a ram, designated as "the kings of Media and Persia." (8:3,20) This is followed by a he-goat declared to be "the king of Grecia" with the single notable horn "as the first king." (8:5,21) The "great horn" is broken, and in its place comes "up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven." (8:8) This is interpreted by Gabriel to mean that "four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power." (8:22) The Seleucid dynasty was one of these kingdoms of which Antiochus Epiphanes was but one of the line - not even the greatest!

The prophecy continues - "And out of one of them came forth a little horn." (8:9) Whether the "one" refers back to "winds" of heaven, or to the "horns" involves the linguistics of verses 8 & 9. If "winds," indicating location, a significant case can be made as to where "the little horn" was to arise; for the direction of conquest, and thus origin, form a vital part of this prophecy. The "little horn" was to move "toward the south, toward the east, and toward the pleasant land." Directions were also given for the movements of the ram and the he-goat. (8:4-5) For example, the ram moved westward, northward, and southward. This means that he came from the east. See map on next page.

Applying this same reasoning to "the little horn" who moved south, east and toward the pleasant land, or Palestine, he would have to originate in the north and west. This leads to the designation of Rome as "the little horn." The conquests of Rome followed the directional sequence of the prophecy. First Rome challenged and conquered Carthage to the south; then Greece to the east, followed by the conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean area.

There are other prophetic criteria identifying "the little horn." The ram "became great;" the he-goat "waxed very great;" but the little horn "became exceeding great." (8:4,8,9) The interpretation given by Gabriel indicated further, that the little horn would appear at "the latter end of their [horn's] kingdom." (8:23) Antiochus Epiphanes meets none of these specifications.

In The Historians' History of the World, Vol. V, p. 1, is an observation which fits perfectly this prophecy if the "One of them" refers to the "horns." It

p 81 -- reads:

"As a matter of fact, the West [or Greek part of Italy] was left by the mother country to its own devices. But it presently became evident that the development that took place was fraught with consequences of the utmost moment to the Hellenistic political system. By abstaining from preemptory interference, while such interference was yet possible, the Macedonian kingdoms permitted a power to arise in Italy so strong that in a very short time it proceeded to aim a fatal blow at their own existence."

Jesus Christ Himself gives the final word to the question as to whether "the little horn" of Daniel 8 is Antiochus Epiphanes. He told His disciples that "the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet" was yet future in their day. (Matthew 24:15.)


p 82 -- APPENDIX E --

Hal Lindsay in his book - The Late Great Planet Earth - popularized the teaching of the Secret Rapture. This concept of a secret coming of Christ for His "elect" prior to the great tribulation and the appearing of the antichrist is today "the lifeblood of the electronic church." A teacher of this theory makes the following explanation of the term, "rapture." He wrote:

Strange to say the word itself does not appear in the Bible. The English word means: "to transport to a state of happiness." It comes from the Latin word, "rapio, " meaning "to seize quickly or suddenly" or "to snatch away."

If the reader will carefully consider I Thessalonians 4:13-18, he will Note - that in the day of Christ's sudden coming for His own, they are to be "caught up" (verse 17). The Greek word here means precisely "snatch up suddenly." From this we derive the term "Rapture" commonly used among premillennial teachers in referring to the first phase of His second advent. (The Rapture, pp. 4-5; Quoted in The Secret Rapture and the Antichrist, p. 11)

To clothe the theory in the respectability of New Testament Greek research, its advocates have asserted that there is a difference between the parousia, or personal presence of Christ, and the apokalupsis, or revelation of Christ in His glory. However, the very text cited to associate the concept of "snatch away suddenly" with the Latin, "rapio" and hence the English, "rapture" - 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 - declares "the parousia (coming) of the Lord" to be accompanied by "a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God." Hardly secret! Further Paul declares that "Wicked One" (Antichrist) will be consumed with the spirit of His mouth at Christ's parousia. (II Thess. 2:8) So the antichrist does not come after the parousia of Christ, but is destroyed at his parousia.

It is also taught that these two supposedly different comings of Christ are separated by seven years. To obtain this sum of years, the Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9, are arranged so as to have the 69 weeks cover till the time of Christ's first Advent. Then is introduced a "prophetic parenthesis" till the parousia of Christ to be followed by the 70th week. This is built upon dispensationalism with the Church Age during the time of the "Gap."

Great stress is made of the results of the "rapture" upon civilization. Newspapers of the variety which will supposedly be published following the "rapture" are used as "missionary" literature. One such "advanced" edition carries in bold headlines - MULTITUDES MISSING - with a sub-line, "Nations Throughout the World Alarmed Over the Mysterious Disappearing of People from the Earth." In writing of occurrences, the imagination is left unfettered. Terrible wrecks take place on the highways as the driver of one vehicle is snatched away. Airplanes crash because the pilot disappears. Even the editor of this Post Rapture Journal has himself listed among the missing, with the reminder he had preached his famous sermon, "The Meeting in the Air," hundreds of times.

The Scriptures teach plainly only one second coming of Christ not a two phased event. Jesus told His disciples: - Note - the time sequence by the use of "then" -

And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with power and great glory. And then shall He send His angels, and shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven. (Mark. 13:26-27)

(Note - The "they" that see are defined in Matt. 24:30 as "all the tribes of earth." The meaning of "elect" was discussed in the Lesson, p. 49.)

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The fact is that dividing the second coming of Jesus into two events was not known in Christian teaching prior to the early 1800's. There are some advocates, however, of this theory who hold that certain statements of early church fathers can be used to sustain its approach to apostolic origin. One of these men is John Walvoord, who is known as the "dean" of this teaching. His conclusions are discredited in a recent publication, The Great Rapture Hoax, by Dave MacPherson (pp. 338-339). *

The teaching of the rapture of the "saints" prior to the great tribulation came by a revelation to a young Scottish teenager, Margaret Macdonald, in 1830. Through this revelation or dream, Margaret introduced the "secret" rapture idea noting that Christ would first be seen by only Spirit-filled Christians. She indicated that the antichrist was still in the future, instead of the historic Protestant designation of the Papacy. From that beginning in Port Glasgow, Scotland, it was taken and developed by John Darby and C. I. Scofield into a whole futuristic schema of last day events.

[ * This book may be obtained from the New Puritan Library, 91 Lytle Road, Fletcher, North Carolina 28732. Another book by the same author - The Incredible Cover-Up - is also very enlightening on this subject.] TOP


The teachings of Scripture in regard to the second coming of Christ use various comparisons. The Son of man is pictured as coming first to the Ancient of days to receive a kingdom. (Daniel 7:13-14) In the book of Revelation when the Lord God omnipotent exercises His power to re-establish His authority in the earth, the declaration is made - "the marriage of the Lamb is come." (Rev. 19:6-7; 11: 15-17) The coming of the Son of man to the Ancient of days involves a pre-Advent investigative judgment. This dual representation of Jesus' coming is mingled by Jesus in a parable He told. Jesus likened the kingdom of heaven "unto a certain king, which made a marriage for His son." (Matthew 22:2) When those bidden would not respond, the festive hall was filled with other guests. Then the king came in to inspect the guests. (22:11) If a guest failed to have on the wedding attire supplied by the king, he was cast out "into outer darkness." (22:12-13) While the thrust of the first part of the parable was directed to the Jewish leadership and how they responded to the coming of Jesus the first time, the second section involves those who responded to fill the places of the original Israel. The robe fitly represents the righteousness of Christ. The messengers whom God has sent, present to God's second Israel the robe necessary to come to the marriage supper of the Lamb.

There is another parable which Jesus told which should engage our attention in regard to the marriage of the Lamb. It is the parable of the Ten Virgins. (Matthew 25:1-13) The setting should be carefully studied. As the story begins, ten virgins have already responded to one call to go forth and meet the Bridegroom. They "took their lamps and went forth (exelthon from exerchomai) to meet the bridegroom." (Verse 1) They were all a part of one group - albeit five were wise and five were foolish. "They all slumbered and slept" because the Bridegroom tarried. (Verse 5) Then at "midnight" a cry was made. (Verse 6) It was the darkest hour, and the voice came from outside of the virgins. This is what makes this parable so distinctive from the other marriage parables Jesus told. The invitations in the other parables were given by servants of the same kingdom as were the invited guests. Further, this voice at midnight calls in the same language as the call which brought them together in the first instance. The voice called - "Go ye out to meet Him." (Verse 5) Here the word is exerchesthe from exerchomai, but in the present tense: - "Be going out to a meeting of Him." In response to this a separation occurred. Five responded, while five continued to lean upon the venders of spiritual merchandise until it was too late - the door was shut! (Verse 11)

Here is the same picture as all the other calls - a messenger with the Lord's message. The tragedy is that there will be those who will be giving lip service to the messenger and messengers of the past, but who will miss or reject the message and messenger of the midnight hour. The concept of the spiritual gift, which we call the spirit of prophecy, is much broader as pictured in Scripture than we are prone to accept. Our limited view may prove very costly in the light of eternity.


Lesson #1 -- Section I: 3, 2, 3, 2 -- Section II: T. F. F. T. F. T.

Lesson #2 -- (1) Father, Son, Holy Spirit. (2) form, equal. (3) express, person. Hebrews 1:3. (4) is. (5) man, things. (6) spirit, truth. (7) Bible. (8) fruits, ground, word, lamb, offering, same, worship, truth. (9) man, God. Acts 5:3, 4.

Lesson #3 -- (1) was, was, was, was, John 1:1-2. (2) I AM, existent, existent. (3) decree, called, called. (4) flesh, all, things. (5) Jesus Christ. (6) Jesus Christ. Neh. 9:12-15; 1 Cor. 10:1-4. (7) Creator, Saviour, Lawgiver.

Lesson #4 -- (1) Bible, line, precept, precept. (2) Sabbath, Lord, God. (3) Lord, Mark 2:27-28. (4) Friday, Saturday, according, commandment, Sunday. (5) Friday, sundown Saturday, hour, sacred. (6) cares, delight, ways, pleasures, words, Lord. (7) flesh, Sabbath. Isaiah 66:22-23.

Lesson #5 -- (1) nine, eight, six, resurrection. (2) command, seventh. (3) fear, Jews, believe. (4) Acts 20:7, preached, midnight, depart, farewell, Jerusalem. (5) after, midst, per verse. (6) vain, commandments. Matthew 15:9.

Lesson #6 -- (1) holy. (2) Ten, Commandments. (3) Commandments, voice, written, finger. (4) ark, holy, sanctuary. (5) Moses, Moses, witness (testimony). (6) land, possession, 4:12-14. (7) Sabbaths, people, Lord. (8) hearts, mind.

Lesson #7 -- Matching- b. h. d. a. g. j. f. i. e. c. (1) righteousnesses, filthy, rags, 64:6 (2) enemies, reconciled, Son, reconciled, saved, life, 5:10.

Lessons # 8 & #9 -- (1) consider, sanctuary, pitched, man. (2) shadow, example, high, once, High, second. (3) forgiveness, cleansing. (4) one, year, Ezekiel 4:6. (5) time, end, 9:24-26. (6) 457, 483, Anointed. 27. midst, week, 31, 34, 1844, second, cleansing (judgment). (7) sin, salvation.

Lesson #10 -- (1) John 14:3, I will come again. (2) tribes, see, trump, dead, will, arise, living, righteous, in, the, air, ever, be, the, Lord. (3) first, resurrection, 1000, years. (4) desolate, being, Satan, dung, buried. (5) thrones, judgment. (6) New, Jerusalem, fire, devours, second. (7) all, things, throne, God, servants, serve.

Lesson #11-- F. T. T. T. T. F. F. T. F. T. F. T. F. T. T.

Lesson #12 -- (1) Moses, Christ. (2) God (faith), commonwealth, Christ. (3) pillar, ground. (4) homes, upper, written, heaven. (5) baptism, water, Spirit. (6) death, burial, resurrection. (7) humility, bread, wine. (8) tithes, holy, tenth, curse, blessing. (9) meat (food), due, season. (10) Father, Son. (11) commandments, faith. (12) hear, voice.

Lesson #13 -- (1) sanctified, man. (2) truth, spiritual. (3) loved, hated. (4) tea, coffee, cola. (5) mice, Isaiah 66:15-17. (6) modesty. (7) Love, world, world, world, Father. (8) evil. (9) displaced, person. (10) temple, Spirit.

Lesson #14 -- There is no Quiz.

End of Bible Study Guide.