Bible Study Guides
- William H. Grotheer


Publisher of the
"Watchman, What of the Night?" (WWN)... More Info
William H. Grotheer, Editor of Research & Publication for the ALF

- 1970s
- 1980s
- 1990s
- 2000s

SHORT STUDIES - William H. Grotheer -
"Another Comforter", study on the Holy Spirit
1976 a Letter and a Reply: - SDA General Conference warning against WWN.
Further Background Information on Zaire -General Conference pays Government to keep church there.
From a WWN letter to a reader: RE: Lakes of Fire - 2 lakes of fire.
Trademark of the name Seventh-day Adventist [Perez Court Case] - US District Court Case - GC of SDA vs.R. Perez, and others [Franchize of name "SDA" not to be used outside of denominational bounds.]


Interpretative History of the Doctrine of the Incarnation as Taught by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, An
- William H. Grotheer

End Time Line Re-Surveyed Parts 1 & 2 - Adventist Layman's Foundation

Excerpts - Legal Documents
- EEOC vs PPPA - Adventist Laymen's Foundation

Holy Flesh Movement 1899-1901, The - William H. Grotheer

Hour and the End is Striking at You, The - William H. Grotheer

In the Form of a Slave
- William H. Grotheer

Jerusalem In Bible Prophecy
- William H. Grotheer

Key Doctrinal Comparisons - Statements of Belief 1872-1980
- William H. Grotheer

Pope Paul VI Given Gold Medallion by Adventist Church Leader
- William H. Grotheer

Sacred Trust BETRAYED!, The - William H. Grotheer

Seal of God
 - William H. Grotheer

Seventh-day Adventist Evangelical Conferences of 1955-1956
 - William H. Grotheer

SIGN of the END of TIME, The - William H. Grotheer

- William H. Grotheer

Times of the Gentiles Fulfilled, The - A Study in Depth of Luke 21:24
- William H. Grotheer

Elder William H. Grotheer



Song of Solomon - Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary

Ten Commandments - as Compared in the New International Version & the King James Version & the Hebrew Interlinear


Additional Various Studies --
"Saving Faith" - Dr. E. J. Waggoner
"What is Man" The Gospel in Creation - "The Gospel in Creation"
"A Convicting Jewish Witness", study on the Godhead - David L. Cooper D.D.

Bible As History - Werner Keller

Canons of the Bible, The - Raymond A. Cutts

Daniel and the Revelation - Uriah Smith

Facts of Faith - Christian Edwardson

Individuality in Religion - Alonzo T. Jones

"Is the Bible Inspired or Expired?" - J. J. Williamson

Letters to the Churches - M. L. Andreasen

Place of the Bible In Education, The - Alonzo T. Jones

Sabbath, The - M. L. Andreasen

Sanctuary Service, The
- M. L. Andreasen

So Much In Common - WCC/SDA

Spiritual Gifts. The Great Controversy, between Christ and His Angels, and Satan and his Angels - Ellen G. White

Under Which Banner? - Jon A. Vannoy


As of 2010, all official sites of ALF in the United States of America were closed. The Adventist Laymen's Foundation of Canada with its website, www.Adventist Alert.com, is now the only official Adventist Layman's Foundation established by Elder Grotheer worldwide.

The MISSION of this site -- to put works of the Foundation online.

Any portion of these works may be reproduced without further permission by adding the credit line - "Reprinted from Adventist Layman's Foundation, AdventistAlert.com, Victoria, BC Canada."

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The Place of the Bible In Education

An Appeal to Christians

"To know wisdom and instruction: to perceive the words of understanding:
to receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, judgment, and equity:
to give subtilty to the simple, to the young man knowledge
and discretion." - Prov. 1:2-4

by Alonzo Trevier Jones

Part C

p 152 -- Chapter XVI - The Study of Physical Science - Anatomy. - Of all the subjects in the realm of physical science, that which most concerns man, that which enters most fully and vitally into his own life, is the science of his own body: the knowledge of its construction, of its preservation, and of its functions. This is true also from the fact that man himself is the crown of creation; and from the further fact that of him Inspiration has declared that he is "fearfully and wonderfully made."

As a perfect illustration of the principle of the Bible as the text-book in science, and of the teaching and science that is truly Christian, the author is permitted to present an address on "How to Study Anatomy," by Stephen Smith, M. D., LL. D., of New York City, which was delivered to the students of the Medical Department of the Syracuse University, Oct. 13, 1902, and published in the Medical Record. Jan. 3, 1903.*

* -- This address is here printed with the special permission of Dr. Smith and the editor of the Medical Record. It is a splendid illustration not only of the use of the Bible as the text-book in science, but of the idea of this whole book. For this reason, the author gratefully acknowledges the great favor in the permission to embody it in his book.


"An accurate and practical knowledge of the mechanism of the human body lies at the foundation of true success in the pursuit of the profession of medicine.

p 153 -- It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that you should at the outset adopt a plan of study which, while it fascinates, and thus absorbs all your attention, tends also powerfully to fix firmly in your memory the associated relations of function and structure. It is only when these relations are so thoroughly grasped and retained by the mind that structure at once suggests function, and function suggests structure, that anatomy is made available in all the emergencies of the daily practise of medicine and surgery.

"It can not be denied that the present method of studying anatomy does not, as a rule, accomplish this result. How rarely does a student become so interested in the study of anatomy that in his zeal in its pursuit he neglects his other studies, or sacrifices pleasures and amusements! And, what is more important, how seldom do we meet a practitioner who can readily recall the precise anatomy and functions of even the more important organs and structures of the body! If we examine critically the modern text-books on anatomy, for the purpose of determining their adaptation to the twofold purpose of inspiring the student with a genuine love of the science and of rendering his knowledge instantly available in practise, we shall be convinced that they accomplish neither result; nor is it difficult to explain the cause of failure. The course of study is entirely wanting in that system, or orderly and logical development of the structures of the body, which appeals to the inventive and constructive faculties. Instead of being treated as an

p 154 -- entity, in which each organ and structure contributes in due proportion to the completed apparatus, the several parts are studied in a fragmentary and disconnected manner, which necessarily fails to interest even the most inventive genius. The fact is entirely lost sight of that anatomy is a natural science, and that, like all natural sciences, it has a perfectly logical development, which, when properly unfolded, leads the mind insensibly from the study of simple parts to their arrangement into complex forms, as is abundantly illustrated in the science of botany, or chemistry, or biology. But neither text-books on anatomy nor teachers of this fundamental branch of a medical education adopt the natural system of teaching this science. On the contrary, the scheme of study is so arranged as to prevent associated relations, and hence continuity of thought, on the part of the student. Therefore, he is constantly required to memorize abstract facts having no necessary connection with each other. Take, for example, the experience of a medical student in attendance at one of our most advanced medical colleges during the last year: He states that his first lesson in anatomy was a description of the external parts of the clavicle; the second was a similar description of the scapula; the third was a similar study of the femur. Meantime he had learned nothing of the structure of bones, nor of their purposes in the skeleton. When questioned, he was found to be impressed with the belief that his success as a student depended solely upon his ability to retain and promptly repeat the terms which he found in his text-book.

The wonderful organism which he

p 155 -- was studying had no more attractions for him than would a language to a student who, in learning it, was required first to commit its dictionary to memory. The prevalent method of pursuing anatomy might be compared to the study of a cotton mill, by beginning with a spindle, and learning all of its parts, than examining a distant wheel, and committing to memory every minute detail of its construction, next learning all the peculiar names of a section of its framework, and thus proceeding until the entire machine had been studied in detached fragments. It is evident that no student would become thoroughly interested in such a study, nor would his knowledge of the machinery make him an expert engineer. He might be able to answer every question involving mere book terms, and yet have very little useful or usable information if he were called upon to remedy defects in its machinery.

"But an experience of many years in teaching anatomy convinced me that a course of study may be followed which will thoroughly interest the average student from the first, and enable him readily to acquire, and firmly to retain in his memory, the minutest details of function and structure of tissues.

How then should anatomy be studied? I answer, precisely as you would begin, continue, and finish the study of any other mechanism with the structure and functions of which you wished to become as familiar as was the inventor. It is evident that to obtain such accurate knowledge of any machine you must study it along the lines pursued by the inventor in the devel-

p 156 -- opment of its several parts. This would require that you should place yourselves in such relations to him as to think his thought from his first conception of the needs of such an apparatus or organism to its completion in the perfected instrument. And herein lies the charm and fascination in the study of anatomy, if you adopt that logical method which the inventor pursues in the creation of a machine. From the very beginning of your studies you would be led to think the thoughts of the Creator, and as the wonderful mechanism of the human body was gradually unfolded, you would become more and more inspired with the loftiest conceptions of the divine wisdom and power. The psalmist, in contemplating the evidence of design in creation, sang, 'How precious also are Thy thoughts unto me, O God! how great is the sum of them!'

"It can not be doubted that the best instructor of a person who is about to study a machine so thoroughly that he can become its engineer would be the inventor himself, for while describing his own work, he would naturally become very enthusiastic and give the most accurate and detailed account of the inception, development, and completion of his invention. As the student followed the train of thought, he would catch the inspiration of the inventor, and as each new feature of the structure gradually developed in orderly and logical succession, his mind would be aglow with the enthusiasm of his teacher, and he would be insensibly transformed into an inventor, architect, creator, and, quite unconsciously, the thing studied would become his own. Such a scheme would lead the student to

p 157 -- begin with the inventor's first conception of the machine about to be invented. That conception is always preceded by a recognition of a function to be performed, and the absence of any apparatus or organism to perform it. In other words, the universal law governing inventions requires that the function to be performed must first be recognized before the structure is devised. The history of every invention shows that it grew out of a recognized need of a machine to accomplish a given object, and that in its construction each part was so devised that, while it performed a special function of its own, it contributed a force or factor to the completed mechanism necessary to the successful performance of its grand purpose. We may, and should, apply the same method to the study of the structure of the human body. We should first recognize fully the function to be performed before we undertake to construct the apparatus adapted to its performance. Herein lies the secret of the successful invention of every useful mechanism. The student who enters upon and steadily pursues the study of anatomy in this spirit is from the first an inventor, and is constantly recognizing functions to be performed, and is as constantly bending all his energies to devise structural appliances to perform those functions. He not only enters into the thoughts of the Creator, but he becomes himself a creator. Thus a genuine inspiration stimulates every inventive faculty of his mind, and instead of being a mere passive agent, receiving and storing away in his memory dry and often worthless

p 158 -- technical terms, he becomes an aggressive inquirer and explorer in this new field of science. TOP

"Now, a course of study of anatomy so arranged that the student is from the first brought into such immediate relations with the Creator of the human mechanism that he will think His thoughts, presupposes that the Creator entered upon, proceeded with, and concluded His work according to the methods which govern all inventions. That is, the Creator discovered a want in creation, a function unperformed, and forthwith proceeded to invent an instrument to meet that want and perform that function. In adopting this theory, we must assume the direct creation of man as a new and original creature, specifically adapted in every structure for a given purpose, and our study must be along the lines already indicated viz.: First of all learn the function to be performed by this new creation, and then follow the development of structure to its completion in the perfected organism.

"The criticism which will be made upon this scheme of study is evident. It will be alleged that we ignore the modern theory of evolution, and thus inculcate antiquated ideas in regard to creation, which are liable to mislead the student. In defence of the method it may be said that the same result can be reached by adhering to the doctrine of evolution, but the scheme would necessarily be intricate and involved to such an extent as to be confusing to the average medical student. Besides, the terms of creation are used because they are more suggestive of the facts of

p 159 -- anatomy than any other terms that may be devised. Perhaps the most important testimony in favor of this method of teaching anatomy is that given by Professor Huxley, the greatest advocate of the theory of evolution. In one of his later lectures, describing the process of development of an ovum as the several stages are seen to succeed each other in symmetrical order under a powerful microscope, he is reported as saying: - "`Strange possibilities lie dormant in that semifluid globe. Let a moderate supply of warmth reach its watery cradle, and the plastic matter undergoes changes so rapid, and yet so steady and purpose-like in their succession, that we can only compare them to those operated by a skilled operator on a formless lump of clay. We see, as it were, a skilled modeler shaping the plastic mass with a trowel; as if a delicate finger traced out the line to be occupied by the spinal column and molded the contour of the body, pinching up the head at one end and the tail at the other, and fashioning flank and limb into the salamandrine proportions in so artistic a way that, after watching the process hour by hour, one is almost involuntarily possessed by the notion that some more subtile aid to vision than an achromatic would show the hidden artist with his plan before him, striving with skilful manipulation to perfect his work.'

"A very distinguished writer refers to this quotation as follows: - "`The above are Huxley's own words. That is to say that the first biologist in Europe (according to Virchow), when he comes to describe the development of life, can only do so in terms of creation.'

"With these explanatory remarks, I propose to

p 160 -- develop the outlines of a course of study of anatomy based on the `Terms of Creation.' If we approach the subject as inventors, and that is the true spirit in which we entered upon this study, our first inquiry would be as to the origin of the conception that man should be created. That is, What were the conditions existing which required the creation of man? We might, perhaps, arrive at a correct conclusion if we analyzed his existing organism, but, as in the Bible narrative, there is a statement of the immediate cause of his creation, and as this is the only record of the kind in human history, and answers our purpose, we will adopt it. TOP

"Referring then to the account of creation as given in Genesis, we learn that the earth had been prepared for living things, and in an orderly manner there had appeared grass, the herb, the fruit tree, living creatures in the waters, winged fowls, cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth, and the Creator pronounced everything good. But now there seems to have been a pause in creation, and, as we follow the narrative, we learn it was discovered that there ` was not a man to till the ground' or 'replenish the earth and subdue it' or `have dominion' over it. Here was a new incentive to creative energy, and apparently a more difficult task was never presented even to Omnipotence. The conclusion of the deliberations of the Council of Creation are given in the announcement, `Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness.' This is the first recorded mention of man in the history of the earth. The decision is in the language of a council of archi-

p 161 -- tects, inventors, or creators. As students, we are at once interested in determining how this man was made in the image and likeness of the Creator. On examining the record, we learn only that the Creator `formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life.' No details are given of the method of procedure in constructing the human body, and we are left to determine these facts by our knowledge of the laws governing the invention and construction of machinery, and an analytical and synthetical study of the completed organism as we have it before us. That is, we must place ourselves as nearly as possible in line with the logical thoughts of the Inventor, and thus have the machine develop in our own studies as it did in His.

"In regard to the laws of invention, we have stated that the first conception in the inventor's mind is function, the second structure. Having recognized the former, we are now to devise and create a structure adapted to perform that function. What rule shall be our guide? - Evidently the rules governing construction in all inventions. These rules may be stated as follows: Every inventor creates, first, the framework; second, the apparatus which operates it; third, the motor power or force which gives the apparatus energy or activity; fourth, the mechanism by which the life and the integrity of the organism is to be maintained; fifth, the organs by which the machine, as a whole, is to be reproduced.

"Following the order of invention, we must deter-

p 162 -- mine what is the framework of the body, and begin construction with it. It is evident, on a general survey of the several tissues of the human organism, that the articulated bones make its framework or skeleton, for all the other tissues and organs are gathered about or are attached to it or concealed and protected within its recesses. We must, therefore, conclude that creative energy began the work of construction with the skeleton, and that this structure must be the first to receive our attention. TOP

"But how is he to construct the skeleton without a perfect knowledge of the materials of which it is composed? This inquiry leads the student at once to an exhaustive study of the intimate nature of bone, for a knowledge of these facts must precede actual constructive work. Turning to the articulated skeleton as an object-lesson to learn the principal functions of bones, he notices that: First, they must sustain great weight, and, second, they must act as levers in all of the movements of the body. As an architect, he knows that the structural peculiarities necessary to the performance of these functions are:   (1) Hardness, to sustain weight;   (2) lightness, to facilitate movement;   (3) elasticity, to resist violence. Here are three nearly opposite qualities to be combined in one tissue, and his curiosity is intensely excited to discover the thoughts of the Divine Architect as He proceeds to solve the difficult problem. But we will not follow the student in his study of osteology, or the science of bone. We assume that every phase in its development from the

p 163 -- selection of its constituent materials to their final organization must interest one who is seeking as an inventor to determine its adaptation to the purpose for which it is created. He can but marvel at the wisdom that takes certain salts of the earth and combines them with a peculiar kind of animal matter in such manner that these heterogeneous substances by some unknown and unknowable affinity create a new substance having the qualities of hardness, lightness, and elasticity; qualities essential to bone in the performance of its varied functions in the skeleton. Scarcely less wonderful to him is the development of bone from the osteal cell and the conversion of the body of the cell into a lakelet, through the medium of which the new bone is nourished by hydrostatic pressure. And as he follows the formation of bone to its completion, he discovers in the construction of its tissue the demonstration of two new and very important principles in physics. The first is that a hollow cylinder is stronger than a solid shaft of the same size. This principle applied in mechanics economizes the materials employed and renders the structure comparatively light, thus adding to facility of movement. The result is beautifully illustrated in the long bones or levers of the skeleton. The second principle is the Gothic arch, which gives the greatest power of sustaining weight with the least amount of material; the greatest elasticity with the highest degree of lightness.

"Having completed a minute study of bone and obtained an accurate knowledge of its constituents, its methods of development, and the structural arrange-

p 164 -- ments adapting it to its various purposes, the student is prepared to advance to the actual construction of bones, and of placing each in its proper position in the skeleton. TOP

"Surveying the skeleton as a whole, the question again arises, Where shall constructive work begin? In other words, Which series of bones was first created? His answer must be determined by recalling the principle of construction of all machinery, viz., the central or axial part must be made first. Applying this principle as he critically examines the articulated bones, his attention is at once arrested by the series which constitute the spinal column as not only central in location, but obviously the other bones are attached to it in such a manner as to prove that they depend upon it in the performance of their functions. He is warranted, therefore, in concluding that the spinal column must have been the part of the skeleton which first received the attention of the Creator.

"But this conclusion does not solve the question as to the initial point where construction began, for the spinal column is constituted of many bones. He has decided as to the series of bones first constructed, but he has not fixed upon the individual bone in the series. In selecting that bone, he must again determine which is the most central and important as regards function. It must be noted that in this view a vertebra proper includes the corresponding ribs and their sternal attachments, as described by Professor Owen in his great work on ' Vertebrates.' In that system,

p 165 -- each complete segment, called "vertebra," consists of a series of osseous pieces arranged according to a type or general plan, in which they form a hoop or arch above and another beneath a central piece; the upper hoop, encircling a segment of the nervous axis, is called the neural arch; the lower hoop encircling a part of the vascular system, is called the haemal arch; their common center is termed the centrum.' A vertebra, thus defined, he calls a ` type segment,' and the skeleton of his ideal, or `archetype' vertebrate, consists of a series of these perfectly-formed segments as we see them in the skeleton of a serpent.

"As the student critically examines the different vertebrae to determine with which the Creator began construction, he is impressed with the important fact that, while the segments of the spinal column have a general resemblance to each other, as if constructed after one model, there are differences which become more and more marked when those of either extremity of the column are contrasted with those in the central or dorsal region. This region must be the point of departure in construction. On examining critically each vertebra to determine which is the ` type segment,' his selection falls upon the seventh dorsal, for all its parts are more complete than any other, and its ribs are longer and more perfectly adapted to their functions. With the seventh dorsal, therefore, he concludes that construction must begin.

"Taking this vertebra in hand to begin practical work, the student at once discovers that it is constituted of many individual parts, each adapted to its

p 166 -- special function. Again, he must determine which part is the center or axis of the vertebra before he can positively decide where the construction work originally began, and hence where he is to commence his operations. Examining very carefully the several parts of a vertebra, and comparing it with the others in the series he notices that the body is the most important portion, for not only are the other parts arranged around and connected with it as a base of action, but it is the only constituent of a vertebra which is continuous throughout the entire spinal column. The body, therefore, or centrum, must have been first created. By this process of scientific inquiry and logical reasoning he reaches at last the initial point where the Creator actually began the work of constructing the human mechanism, viz., the centrum of the seventh dorsal vertebra. TOP

"Here, then, the student begins the actual study of what is, in a real sense, 'practical anatomy.' The seventh dorsal vertebra is the point of departure from which he is to develop, in serial order, not only the skeleton, but the entire human organism. The science of anatomy, like kindred natural sciences, thus has its beginnings in a few simple principles or conditions, and out of them grow the complex forms which are so difficult to understand when studied independently and without a previous thorough knowledge of these fundamental facts.

"As the student, now fully equipped for his task, begins constructive study, we may well regard him

p 167 -- as Huxley's `skilled operator on a formless lump of clay;' `a skilled modeler shaping the plastic mass;' `the hidden artist with his plan before him, striving with skilful manipulation to perfect his work.' The plan before him is the articulated skeleton, and the materials are the individual bones; the former for synthetical study or the placing of each bone in its proper position, and the latter for analytical study, or the minute examination of its technical peculiarities. His method is still that of an inventor and creator, for he will learn the nature of the function before he begins structural work. Having found the initial point of construction of the mechanism which he is about to create, and being thoroughly familiar with the rules governing his art, our artist-student, our `skilled modeler,' `with his plan before him,' enters upon his task with enthusiasm, and pursues his studies with ever-increasing delight. We see him model with nicest skill the interior of the body of the seventh dorsal vertebra, filling it with Gothic arches that it may sustain great weight and still be very light. No sculptor's chisel ever wrought in marble more artistic curves than those which he gives to the exterior covering. With `delicate fingers' he shapes the neural arch, `pinching up' the terminal portions of the laminae to form the graceful spinous process. With mathematical exactness he cuts the articulating facets so as to secure a minimum of motion with a maximum of strength. For the haemal arch he forms the ribs and curves them so that they shall perform the twofold function of protecting the organs of the chest and aiding in respiration

p 168 -- through their nicely-adjusted articulations with the body and lateral processes. He finishes the haemal arch with the costal cartilages and the sternum and, adjusting the several parts to each other, the seventh vertebra, the ` type-segment,' stands forth perfect in all its details, a beautiful specimen of high art. With its completion the student has acquired the key to a thorough knowledge of all the bones of the skeleton, for the remaining bones are but variations of the seventh dorsal, the ` type-segment.' And all of these variations from the seventh are simply designed to adapt other vertebra to new functions.Hence he proceeds with comparative ease in his constructive study of the spinal column below and above the seventh dorsal. As he descends, he modifies each vertebra according to its function, until he reaches the coccyx, where he preserves only a remnant of the body. As he ascends from the seventh dorsal, more remarkable changes take place, as in the atlas and axis, but most strikingly in the bones of the skull and face. But in these irregular and curiously-formed bones the `student-artist' recognizes only variations of the ` type-segment,' adapting parts or the whole of the vertebra to new functions. Even in the bones of the upper and lower extremities he discovers two vertebrae which have undergone extreme variations owing to the peculiar functions they have to perform. TOP

"Thus in our scheme of study the seventh dorsal represents the `Vertebrate Archetype' of Owen, which Holden says is ` the grammar of all osteology.' He adds, `Of this a student may rest assured, that however

p 169 -- minutely he may have scrutinized the bones, he can not understand them unless he knows something of the vertebrate archetype; without this knowledge he is like one who speaks a language fluently, but is ignorant of its grammar.' And we may add that he has acquired a chain of associated facts which will remain indelibly impressed upon his memory, and that will enable him to recall promptly the function and the structural peculiarities of every bone in all the emergencies of practise.

"Having completed the skeleton or framework, our artist-student recognizes that it must be endowed with at least two forces to enable the coming man to perform the task of tilling the earth and subduing it. First, he must have the power of locomotion, or of moving from place to place, and, second, he must have the power of prehension, or of seizing and holding objects. In construction the student must have noticed that the bones were designed to move upon one another, and that those of the extremities take the form of levers. The question now before him is as to the kind of apparatus to be constructed to operate these levers, and how it is to be applied. Holding up before my class the seventh and sixth dorsal vertebrae in proper position, I asked, `How would you make these bones move on each other?' A first-course student replied, 'Attach a rubber strap to their spinous processes.' He stated a principle and a fact; the principle was that the apparatus with which one bone is to be moved upon another must have the quality of contraction, and the fact was that such a strap as he suggested, though not made of rubber, was already attached to their spinous

p 170 -- processes. The incident illustrates the readiness of the student, whose mind is trained to devise structures adapted to perform functions, to anticipate the very existence and nature of the tissues which he is about to study. It serves also to accentuate the proposition that I then made to the effect that, as these central dorsal bones were first constructed, according to our scheme of creation, we may logically conclude that to these bones were applied the first structures made to move the levers of the body. Here, then, at the seventh dorsal, we find the type muscle, and here we begin our constructive study of the muscular system.

"Preparatory for constructive work, the student must now acquire, first, an accurate knowledge of the histological peculiarities of muscles and of their classification, and, second, he must practically learn the nature and classification of levers - two most interesting subjects to the inventor, and which, thoroughly understood, give to the surgeon great practical skill.

"Assuming that he has acquired this knowledge, he begins the study of muscles in situ. He must reject altogether the method pursued in the text-books, which follows the order of dissections; for nothing could be more unscientific than to construct the muscles beginning with the most superficial layer and finishing with the deepest muscles. Now the order of creation must necessarily have been the very reverse of this. If we apply the muscles with our own fingers, as I propose, we must place the deepest layer first and the superficial layer last. This method has this obvious advantage, that the deepest muscles are usually simple and have

p 171 -- a single action, while the superficial muscles are compound and complex in form and action.

"It will be alleged that this method of study necessitates delaying dissections until the student has completed the review of the entire muscular system as given in the text-books. It is true that he would have to learn the muscles of a part, as the trunk or a limb, from his book before he attempted its dissection. And there is this advantage in such an order of studying, that his dissection will be much more carefully and intelligently made if he has already a correct knowledge of the parts he is now practically demonstrating.

"Recurring now to the adaptation of muscles to the levers of the skeleton to give the latter functional activity, the question again arises in the mind of the artist-student as to the point where he is to begin. In other words, ` Which muscle in the order of creation was first applied?' Logically, the first bone created, - the seventh dorsal, according to our scheme, - would receive the first attention. Now the articulations of this bone show that it has a limited motion on the adjoining vertebrae, and to effect that motion the greatest leverage would be secured by attaching a muscle to the spinous processes of the two bones, as suggested by the student. He was thinking the thoughts of the Creator, for we find in the interspinales muscles the identical elastic cords that he recognized as necessary for the performance of the first and simplest function of these bones. These simple structures, so small in the dorsal region, but so well developed in the cervical, may be taken as the first muscles applied.

p 172 -- "Commencing then with the interspinalis muscle of the seventh dorsal vertebra, as the point of departure in the study of the muscular system, the student follows the line of constructive thought in the most natural and scientific manner to the final application of the last muscle to the terminal bones of the extremities. Throughout this entire study his dominant thought as an inventor is in each case, ` What class of muscles must I select? and where shall I attach them to the bones to enable them to perform the functions for which they were severally created?' Thus, as the skeleton developed from a single central thought, so the muscular system now grows under his plastic hand in symmetrical form from the little, delicate slip that he placed between the spinous processes of the seventh dorsal and its neighbor to the enormous, intricate, and complex erector spinae, multifidus and complexus, muscles of the back which students, following the old method of study, usually group very properly under the term `musculus perplexus.' Having completed the muscles of the trunk, he proceeds to apply them to the great levers of the extremities. In this part of his study all his inventive faculties are inspired with the keenest insight by the revelation of the marvelous forms of adaptation of muscular force to effect the infinite variety of motions of these levers. And the one fact that perhaps will impress him most is this, that all these muscles, even to the terminal phalanges, have as the basis of their action the spinal column, and chiefly the central dorsal vertebra where he began the study of both the skeleton and the muscular system. This

p 173 -- arrangement and action of the muscles will appear as he traces the peculiar relations of one muscle to another, beginning with the spinal column and terminating with the extreme bones of either limb. TOP

Though in the series there may be several muscles, each having its special function when acting alone, yet it is evident that they may all act together as a compound muscle, and perform a new and quite independent action. This is strikingly illustrated by Professor Owen in the figure of a man stooping under a heavy load, which rests upon his shoulders. The weight is sustained chiefly by the following muscles, viz., the erector spinae of the back, the glutei at the hips, the quadriceps extensors of the thigh, the gastrocnemii of the legs, and the short flexors of the feet. Here are ten separate and independent muscles, extending from the spine to the ends of the toes, now united in their action to perform one function.

"In the construction of the human organism we have now completed the framework and the apparatus which is to operate it. But as yet we have only an inert and inanimate object, quite incapable of performing the duties for which it was created. Our next inquiry as inventors must be, `How shall these muscles be endowed with force and these dry bones be stimulated to activity?' The result of creative thought and energy was the development of that marvelous and exquisitely beautiful mechanism the nervous system. Studying along the lines of creation, the dullest student becomes fascinated with the wonderful adaptation of means to an end which he discovers in every part of this system,

p 174 -- but especially in the nerve-centers, where the power is generated which moves the muscles to action. As in the study of the skeleton and muscular system the student learned the intimate nature of bone and muscle before beginning construction, so now the histological peculiarities of the materials constituting the nerve tissue are thoroughly learned, and the special uses of each kind or form are fully understood. Then constructive work begins, and the point of departure is again the seventh dorsal, because here is found the type nerve-center of which all others are only variations to meet special functions. This one nerve-center, thoroughly analyzed and understood, is the key to a ready appreciation of the peculiarities of every other, as was a knowledge of the seventh dorsal vertebra a key to a quick understanding of the special features of every other bone of the skeleton. Even in the complicated and complex forms of nerve centers of the brain the student readily recognizes the special variations of the ` type nerve-center' made to meet new functions, and so appreciates the necessity of the changes that he forever retains them in his memory. Not less interesting when studied in order is the origin of nerves from the centers, the method of distribution through the medium of a plexus, their final termination in muscles and other tissues, and their relations, in their courses, to other tissues.

"We have now reviewed the construction of three great systems of tissues, - the osseous for a framework of the mechanism, the muscular to operate it, and the nervous to give it energy. But it is apparent to us

p 175 -- as inventors that this machine, being subject to ` wear and tear,' and hence to decay and death, must not only be supplied with the means of repairing waste, but of perpetuating itself when its life ends. These facts open new fields for constructive study, and the artist-student begins with renewed zeal to trace in his plan the origin and development of the digestive system, then its auxiliary, the circulatory system, and finally, the reproductive system. TOP

"We need not follow the student farther. He continues his study and construction along the lines of original thought, always first recognizing a function to be performed before he studies the apparatus designed to perform it. As he proceeds, all the details of the mechanism unfold in the logical order peculiar to the natural sciences, `pointing,' says Holden, `to the one great Cause of all organization.'

"A student who has in this manner thoroughly mastered the several systems of tissues theoretically finds their demonstration by dissection a constant source of delight. Every stroke of the scalpel is made with precision, and reveals a hidden thought of the Creator in new and living light, which engraves upon the memory of the dissector the details of function and structure so distinctly that, at all times and in all emergencies, this knowledge is immediately available. And I may add, as a final statement, that to the philosophical, devout, and creative mind, seeking knowledge along these lines of inquiry, the ecstatic remark of Galen is eminently true, "The study of anatomy is a perpetual hymn to the gods.'" TOP
p 176 --
Chapter XVII - The Study of Physical Science - Healing. - Further in the medical field there can be read from the Bible the text, "The inhabitant shall not say, I am sick: the people that dwell therein shall be forgiven their iniquity," revealing the principle that sin is a vital element in physical sickness, and that consequently the forgiveness of sin, which involves the ceasing to sin the cutting off of sin by righteousness, is a thing to be recognized and employed in the Christian treatment of disease. Proceeding upon this principle, it can confidently be declared and forever taught, as has been declared and taught by the editor of American Medicine, George M. Gould, M. D.: - "The relationship of sin and disease has been recognized by all great philosophic minds, but nowhere has it been so accurately expressed as in the treuchant words of Cotton Mather, who speaks of disease as `Flagellum Dei pro peccatis mundi.' To those modern materialists, or atheists, and especially to the all-knowing agnostics, who misuse science for dogmatic purposes, this saying of Cotton Mather will seem beneath their scorn, because to their thinking there is neither sin nor God. They should go one step further, and with their allies, the unchristian scientists, make `an end on't ' by also denying the existence of disease

p 177 -- and the world. It is an old trick of the mind to rid one's self of difficulties and responsibilities by denying the existence of facts. He who silences his conscience by denying sin, only adds another sin to his individual burden, and another sinner to the burden of the world. ... Let us therefore assume as beyond discussion that atheism is unscientific, and that God lives, and that sin is opposing and not furthering His biologic work in the world. ...

"God is a true physician, working for final normality. He may cauterize in order to cure, and prefer amputation rather than necrosis. His patient is the entire future body and soul of humanity, not the individual members now and here existing. The wise ones of the world, the philosophers and the prophets, the leaders of men to better living, have been those who saw the far and subtle lines and laws of causation running back from disease and untimely death to the sources of ignorance (which is also sin), of selfishness, and of wrong-doing. This is the text of all preaching and prophecy, the burthen of all tragedy, the plot of all literature. And it is the heart of medicine! ... As physicians we must work to cure and prevent disease. If, as we have seen, disease is always more or less dependent upon sin, we must in a scientific prophylaxis try to stop the sin that partly or entirely generates or allows the disease. ...

"Science, it is plain, has outrun morality; we know how to lengthen the average human life by many years, with a proportionate reduction of all the suffering and

p 178 -- expense, but we are powerless to do it, because, simply of sin. There is no doubt that sin alone prevents a reduction of the death-rate and sickness by one-half, and a lengthening of life to 50 or 60 years. And we have nearly or quite reached the limit so far as the art of therapeutics is concerned. We can never cure a much greater proportion of the sick until we have better bodies and souls in the patients. The great progress of the future in medicine will be prevention. We must lose our life to find it. There are about 1,500,000 deaths annually in the United States - at least 500,000 more than there would be if we could carry out sanitary reforms of proved efficacy. ... There is no prevention of disease without stifling the causes of disease. Wherever sin exists, it works itself out finally in sickness and death. The man who says his sole duty is to cure disease, not to bother about sin or society, is a bad physician and a poor citizen. In a hundred ways he can influence his neighbors and his nation, to lessen disease and death, besides by what the text-books call therapeutics. The best therapeutics is to render therapeutics unnecessary." TOP

This idea of the forgiveness of sins as an element in the true treatment of disease does not in any sense sanction the quackery of the so-called faith-cures. Undeniably, faith is in it: because forgiveness of sins is received and known only by means of faith. But it is the "faith which works;" not an airy, figmentary "faith" that prays and "believes" and sits around and does nothing. It is the faith which upon the Word

p 179 -- of God and the love of God teaches the forgiveness of sins and then works most vigorously to reduce fever, to eliminate poisons, and diligently to search for the physical causes of the sickness, in order that these causes shall with the sins be forever abandoned, and the true way of true health, which is inseparable from holiness be faithfully followed in the future.

Upon this principle the philosophy of the forgiveness of sins is studied in order to know how, as a matter of practical knowledge, the forgiveness of sins enters as an element into practical medical science. And in this direction there is not far to go to find at least one important truth as to how this is.
Here it is: "Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith the Lord; and I will heal him. But the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it can not rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt. There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked." Isa. 57:19-21. The peace of God which comes to man in the forgiveness of sins and the restoration of the soul to righteousness is a distinct element in recovery from sickness, and is a right of way to health. And there is not an intelligent physician in the world, even though he be an avowed atheist, who will not say that a disturbed mind, a troubled heart, a perplexed life, is a positive hindrance to whatever may be done to bring a person back from sickness to health; while, on the other hand, peace of mind and quietness and rest of heart are a positive aid. And that sound medical principle, which every physician recognizes, is declared in the Bible as a med-

p 180 -- ical principle; and is given by the Lord directly as a medical prescription to the sick: "Peace, peace, ... saith the Lord; and I will heal him."

And yet this is but an instance in illustration of the essential virtue and power of the word of God to heal. It is written: "He sent His word, and healed them." Ps. 107:20. And of the medicinal virtue of His word as such, it is written: "My son, attend to My words; incline thine ear unto My sayings. Let them not depart from thine eyes; keep them in the midst of thine heart. For they are life unto those that find them, and health [margin, Heb., "medicine"] to all their" - spirit? - No. "To all their" - mind? - No. But "to all their flesh." It is the flesh that disease takes hold of. But the words of God received into the heart, and treasured in the life, and allowed to be indeed the spring of the life - this is "health to all the flesh." It is the Divine Physician's own prescription for health, and the Divine virtue is in it for all who will take the "medicine" thus prescribed. The prescription is repeated in Ex. 15:26 and in Deut. 7:12-15. TOP

And yet all this is but a part of the expression of the Lord's supreme wish with respect to the health of mankind. For He says, "I wish above all things that thou mayest prosper and be in health." 3 John 2. Indeed, He puts His wish for the prosperity of the health of man exactly on an equality with His wish for the prosperity of the soul of man: "I wish above all things that thou mayest prosper and be in

p 181 -- health, even as thy soul prospereth." And this is but the repetition of the mighty truth already touched upon, that, as the opposite of sin and disease as being inseparable, health and holiness are inseparable.

This truth is revealed in the native English language in which we speak, and in its mother languages, as well as in the Bible. The word "health" is an abstract noun, from "whole," not from "heal." The real meaning of the word "whole" is "hale, sound, entire, complete." The original sense of the word "whole" is "hale," which signifies "in sound health." This is confirmed by that verse of scripture, "They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick."

The original form of the present word "hale" is "hal." And its descent is "hal, hol, hool, hole, hwole, whole." Thus the spelling "h-a-l-e" is only a later Scandinavian form of the word "whole." The present Norwegian word for "whole" is "hel." Indeed, the "w" in the word "whole" has been in use only about four hundred years; and the English Philological Society has recommended the dropping of the "w," so as to restore the word to its connection with its related words, "holy," "heal," "health," etc.

Thus the descent of our word "whole," in that line, from the original "hal," shows it to mean "in sound health."

This word has another line of descent, which presents an additional and very important idea. It runs thus: hal, hol, hool, hole, holy, hole-ness, holy-ness, holi-ness; for our present word "holy" is "nothing but

p 182 -- Middle English `hool' (now spelled w-h-o-l-e), with suffix `y '." The Anglo-Saxon runs the same: "hal," with suffix "ig," forming "halig." This suffix "ig" corresponds exactly to our modern English "y," so that the Anglo-Saxon "halig" is precisely our modern word "holy." Corresponding to the Anglo-Saxon "halig" is the German "heilig," which also corresponds precisely to our present word "holy." And that German word "heilig" is from the word "heil," which signifies "health, happiness, safety, salvation." The descent and family of the word in German is this:-
  Heil, signifying hale, whole, healthy.
  Heiland, signifying the Saviour, from "old present participle - the healing or saving One."
  Heilig, signifying (healthful, bringing the highest welfare; hence) holy, sacred.
  Heiligkeit, signifying holiness.
  Heilsam, signifying wholesome, healing.

The German of Isa. 12:2 is, "Siehe, Gott ist mein Heil. ... Gott der Herr ist meine Starke und mein Psalm, und ist mein Heil."TOP

The Scandinavian languages - indeed, the whole Teutonic family of languages - tell the same story. And that story is that in the true conception of health both holiness and its resultant - salvation - are comprehended.

Where our further-back mother tongue says "heil," our immediate mother tongue says "salvation." And the Bible says that health and salvation are the same thing: "God be merciful unto us, and bless us; and

p 183 -- cause His face to shine upon us; that Thy way may be known upon earth, Thy saving health among all nations." Ps. 67:1, 2. The health which is of God is "saving health." It means holiness, and salvation because of holiness. His "way" known on earth is His "saving health" known among all nations.

Again: "Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and why art thou disquieted in me? hope thou in God: for I shall yet praise Him for the help of His countenance." The Hebrew words in English letters say, "For His presence is salvation."

And, "I shall yet praise Him, who is the health of my countenance, and my God." The help of His countenance is the health of my countenance. His presence is salvation, and His presence is health.
Then by the Scriptures, true salvation is health, and true health is salvation. Ps. 42:5, 11. See also Ps. 43:5.

Finally: "Let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God." 2 Cor. 7:1.

What is filthiness of the flesh? - It is tobacco using; opium eating; tea, coffee, beer, or whisky drinking; eating unclean and unwholesome food; unclean habits of living. From all such things the Christian cleanses himself. But when that is done, only half of the man is reached. He must also cleanse himself from "all filthiness of the spirit:" from all uncleanness of thought and word. The man must do both to attain to true holiness, haleness, health, salvation. TOP

Thus emphasized in the Bible and its philosophy

p 184 -- throughout, and rooted and imbedded in the very language in which we speak, is the truth as a medical principle that health and holiness are inseparably combined. Therefore in every Christian these must also be inseparably combined: else how can we be truly and intelligently Christian? And of all things these two - health and holiness - must be inseparably combined in the physician: and only less so in the preacher. The preacher who separates them, fails to preach the principles of true holiness; and the physician who separates them, fails to practise the principles of true health. And what God has so inseparably joined together, how can any person do well in putting asunder?

TEMPERANCE: HEALTHFUL LIVING -- This unity of health and holiness involves the principle of a regard for temperance and healthful living. We have seen that this was a specific study in the schools of the prophets. We have seen that temperance was one of the prominent characteristics of the youth and, indeed, the life of Daniel. That this was taught to him in the school which he attended, and was a material part of his education before his captivity, is evident from the fact that it was already a fixed principle in his life at that time.

When the royal captives reached Babylon, "the king appointed them a daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank." The word here translated "meat" signifies "dainties;" and refers to the royal dainties, such as would be expected at the table of such a great king. It included flesh meats,

p 185 -- of course; for these were largely used; but the word signifies all the royal dainties. TOP

But Daniel refused it all, and also refused the wine, and chose "pulse to eat, and water to drink." The word translated "pulse" is a word of wide meaning, just as is the word translated "meat," referring to the king's dainties. The word translated "pulse" comprehends the whole realm of vegetarian diet, just as the other word comprehends the whole field of the King's dainties. What Daniel asked was that he, with his three companions, might have a vegetarian diet for food, and water to drink, instead of the richly-prepared and highly-seasoned dainties of the king's table for food, and his wine for drink.

This action of those four boys was but the expression of a fixed principle, derived from knowledge of the effects which the king's provision would have. For Daniel not only "purposed in his heart" that he would not partake of the king's victuals and drink, but he did this because "he would not defile himself" with those things. He refused that food and drink because he knew their defiling effect upon those who used them.

For the effect of all such food and drink is certainly to defile. To illustrate: If your lamp chimney is all befogged, the light will not shine clearly through it: not half the light will shine through it then that will shine through it when it is well cleaned. Yet the light itself within the chimney may be the same all the time. The oil may be of the purest, the wick perfectly trimmed, there may be no lack whatever in the light

p 186 -- itself; yet if the chimney be dusty, smoky, or in any way befogged, the light will not shine clearly. It simply can not shine clearly, because of the condition of the medium through which it must shine.

You know that when this is so, the thing to do is not to tinker the light nor to find fault with it, but to clean the chimney. And you know that when you do clean the chimney, the light is not only allowed to shine through, but it is actually enabled to shine as it can not possibly without any chimney. Thus it is literally true that, other things being equal, the strength and clearness of the light depend upon the medium through which it must shine.

Now, believers in Christ are the mediums through which the light of God, by His Holy Spirit, must shine to the world. That light is perfect. It is impossible that there should be any lack whatever in the perfect shining of that light itself. So far as there is any lack in perfect shining, it is altogether because of defect in the medium through which the light would shine. And anything whatever that benumbs the nerves or clogs the blood, befogs the system and bedims the light of God, as certainly as that befogged lamp chimney bedims the light of the lamp.

Every kind of stimulant and narcotic - wine, tobacco, beer, coffee, tea - does benumb the nerves; and all richly-cooked, highly-seasoned, and flesh-meat food does clog the blood; so that the effect of all or any of these is to befog the system, and bedim the light of God that would shine, by His Holy Spirit, through our lives in the darkness of the world.

p 187 -- Daniel lived in the darkest age of ancient Israel, - the age when it fell by the weight of its own iniquity. He also lived in the darkest age of ancient Babylon, - the age when Babylon also fell by the weight of its own iniquity. Daniel stood in the world as one of the professed people of God, through whom the light of God must shine in the darkness of the world of his day.

We live to-day in an age that corresponds to that of both Jerusalem and Babylon. To-day God calls His people out of Babylon, that they " be not partakers of her sins," and "receive not of her plagues." We stand as the professed people of God, through whom the light must shine in the darkness of the world. Yet hundreds, we fear there are thousands, of professed Christians do drink tea, coffee, or other such evil stuff, and do habitually eat flesh meats, dainties, and highly-seasoned food; and then wonder why their neighbors do not "see the light"! They ask the Lord for His Holy Spirit, and then wonder why they have "so little influence"!

The truth is, their neighbors can not see the light: it is so bedimmed by their befogged minds and lives that people simply can not see it clearly. The Lord gives His Holy Spirit, He has now poured out His Holy Spirit; the perfect light is given, and as for the light itself, it can not shine any clearer; but this holy light is bedimmed by the benumbed nerves and befogged senses of these users of tea, coffee, flesh meats, and dainties, so that even those who long to see it, and are looking earnestly for it can not see it.

It can not shine to them. TOP

p 188 -- Daniel would not so defile himself. He had respect to the claims of his profession of being one of God's people. He therefore cleansed himself "from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit," that the light of God might shine undimmed and unhindered by the medium through which that light must shine in the darkness where he was. And all this happened for an example, and it is written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come. Please, then, do not any more dare to sing, "Dare to be a Daniel," unless you do really dare to be a Daniel.

Nobody had any difficulty in seeing the light where Daniel and his companions were. It shone clearly. The moral integrity which they had acquired through the Word and Spirit of God shed its clear, distinct rays in every situation in which they were found. The light of this single principle of temperance and right living shone so clearly and so powerfully, in these boys, in contrast with the others, as to win the approval of the king's high officer. Dan. 1:12-15.

All this is precisely what is wanted to-day in the darkness of the Babylon that surrounds us. Who of those to-day who profess to have the light of God for the world will defile themselves with the Babylonish meats and drinks of those around them? Who to-day, of all these, will not, in deed and in truth, "dare to be a Daniel"?

p 189 -- Chapter XVIII - The Study of Physical Science - Physical Culture. - Physical culture is a phase of education that excites much interest. And, like other features of education, it is carried on by methods as far as possible from those of true education. True physical culture is manual training, or industrial education. It is the training or educating of all the faculties to do expert work in honest and useful occupations: while the popular physical culture is devoted solely to the training of muscular powers to the winning point in games, races, and all sorts of contest of physical strength and endurance. And in this difference there lies a world of meaning.

Christianity requires honest work at honest and useful occupations: as it is written: "Even when we were with you, this we commanded you, that if any would not work, neither should he eat. For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies. Now them that are such we command and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread." 2 Thess. 3:10-12. "Let ours also learn to profess honest trades for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful." Titus 3:14, margin. "Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labor, working

p 190 -- with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth." Eph. 4:28.

The one model Christian and model Man has set the example of all Christianity. And counting from the time that He was twelve years old in the flesh to the time of His baptism when He entered specifically upon His teaching and ministry, He spent nearly six times as much of His life on earth in the daily occupation of manual labor as He spent in the direct work of His public ministry. Now it can not be said that He learned that trade and spent this time at it with the expectation that He would or might need it afterward "some time" as a means of "making a living." This therefore demonstrates that in manual labor, honest work at honest occupation, there is that which is valuable to man for itself alone: that in itself it is an end, and not merely a means to an end.

It is therefore an utter mistake for anybody to think that manual labor is in any sense a curse, or any part of the curse. Yet it can not be denied that multitudes of men think that such labor is akin to a curse, if not the very original curse itself. Indeed, even many Christians so misread the Word of God as to make it appear that the requirement that man shall eat bread by the sweat of his face is a material part of the curse. It is not so. The word of God to man is, "Cursed is the ground for thy sake. ... In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." When some thing is cursed for MY SAKE, then the cursing of that thing is to me not a curse, but a blessing. For that which is done for my

p 191 -- sake is an evidence of a special thought, care, and consideration for me; and of good-will to me. And such is the wise provision that "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." TOP

When the man was created and put in the garden, it was with the purpose that he should work. For it is observed that before he was made "there was not a man to till the ground." And when he was made, God "put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." Gen. 2:5, 15. Thus industrial occupation was an essential to the welfare of man in his very creation, and in paradise, with the purpose that he should enjoy that blissful place and state forevermore. And when this was essential to the welfare of man in righteousness, perfection, and paradise, only the more is it essential when he has fallen into sin and imperfection. Therefore in this latter state, since work is the more needed for his welfare, for his sake the ground is caused to require more labor in the dressing and keeping of it so that it shall supply to man the needed sustenance.

Yet more than this, there is in it a moral element. While the man was sinless, there were in the earth no untoward elements; and his occupation was only, in its perfect and blessed abundance of all that was good, to dress it and to keep it. But after the man had fallen into sin, and when God would save him from the sin, increase of occupation is required. And though it is now actual labor and this to the extent of "the sweat of his face," yet it is all "for his sake." And all of this

p 192 -- reveals the mighty truth that work, manual labor, industrial occupation, holds an important place as an
element in the recovery from the inroad of sin, and in the development of morals. And this view is clearly confirmed by the life of Christ on earth. It is therefore in the perfect strictness of truth and philosophy that the word stands, "Cursed is the ground for thy sake. ... In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread."

But in his darkness and perversion of mind man naturally sees things in the reverse. It is therefore the natural inclination of men not to work if they can help it: to work only when they have to, and then only as far as possible to get themselves into a position or condition where they can live without work. They will spend much money and time in the taking of lessons in athletics, in violent exertion in games of all sorts, in vigorous and systematic motions for exercise and for health; but they will not work. Manual labor, industrial occupation, they despise as something disgraceful to their sort; for they "do not have to work." TOP

This persistent tendency to avoid work, and to indulge in desperate contests in games and races, is today industriously cultivated in popular education. The course thus taken is both a positive detriment to the youth and a menace to society itself. This truth is confirmed by the unerring evidence produced by the camera. In the photographs of contestants in bicycle races, for instance, taken at the crucial point of the race at the winning line, when every faculty of the being is swallowed up in the contest, it has been dis-

p 193 -- covered that in the facial expression there is remarkable sameness; and that that which is revealed in these countenances is the very intensity of all the worst passions of the human soul. The expression of hatred,
variance, emulation, wrath, strife, envy, jealousy, malignity, murder, fear, horror, despair, make them almost as the faces of demons rather than of men.

There is a better education than that. There is a better physical culture than that. For this reason alone, if there were no others, every Christian school absolutely excludes all games and all contests and rivalry of every kind, either intellectual or physical. In the place of these, the Christian school establishes useful industrial occupations for the employment of all students. Actual work in these occupations is made an essential part of the education which the school supplies, and for which the student pays; and no person will be received as a student nor employed as a teacher who will not willingly go to the work in these occupations in the work hours, as to the work in books in the hours of study or recitation.

The Christian school will not countenance anything that will in any way suggest that there is any distinction between work and education: it will steadily and uncompromisingly hold that work is education, and education is work. The Christian school will not recognize the view that work is a means to an education in the sense that a person can work his way to an education, and when he has obtained his education he can consider himself above such work. The Christian

p 194 -- school will allow that work is a means to an education only in the single sense that the work itself is education: that true education is found in the very work itself. Therefore for such a school to employ
teachers to instruct only in the recitation rooms, and occupy themselves with the students only in recitation hours, while the students themselves must occupy themselves in recitation hours and work hours besides - this would be only to sanction in the strongest way, by example, that there is a clear distinction between education and work, so that, when a person has education sufficient to be able to teach, he may properly be considered to be exempt from work. That would be an abandonment of the principle, and putting in its place a mere theory.

Another important principle involved in this is that the Christian school, like all other Christian things, can go on forever: no long vacations are ever needed. Long vacations are in themselves a detriment, unless the time out of school is spent in some useful employment. But when all the time in school is properly balanced between manual labor and book study, educational effort is not so one-sided that it is necessary to abandon it for several months in order for the system of the student to regain its proper balance. Combined with God's great blessing of physical labor - honest work at honest trades and occupations - to invigorate the body, educational efforts in Christian schools, instead of ever becoming wearisome tasks, are continually reviving inspirations, and can go on daily forever as easily as to go on at all.

p 195 -- Thus in every way there is true science and philosophy in God's great blessing of manual labor in Christian schools as well as everywhere else. And in view of the truth of God's Word on the subject, how can any school be truly Christian that willingly despises or neglects this truly Christian physical culture? TOP

p 196 -- Chapter XIX - The Study of Physical Science - Continued. - Astronomy must be a study in Christian schools, in obedience to the call of the Lord, "Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number: He calleth them all by names by the greatness of His might, for that He is strong in power; not one faileth." Isa. 40:26. This will be one of the texts: and the brilliant galaxy of the heavens, with its suns, systems, orbits, and laws, and the literature of the subject, will be the study-book. And as the student contemplates the innumerable host, and remembers that God not only knows the collective number of them all, but brings out each one by its own number; that He calls each one by its particular name, and never forgets - not one ever slips His mind or escapes His attention - either its number or its name; and that by this infinite knowledge and this attention that touches the infinitesimal, each one is kept exactly in its orbit and in its time to a spider's-web space in ages upon ages - as thus he learns in the study-book and there falls upon his ear the pleading inquiry of the next verse in the Text-book, "Why sayest thou, ... My way is hid from the Lord, and My judgment is passed over from My God?" he
knows that He who calls these all by their names, and thinks

p 197 -- upon him, will never forget his name, nor shall he ever fail of the infinite attention.

Another text may be, "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades?" Job 38:31. With that as a text, all the astronomy of the Pleiades will be the study-book. And when the student has covered the field of the Pleiades, and knows what are the sweet attractive influences of the Pleiades, he will know that he can know, in his own life, the sweet influences of the Spirit of Him who gave sweet influences to the Pleiades; and that will make him in his place in the order of God what the Pleiades are in their place in the order of God.

He can read also the text, "He healeth the broken in heart, and bindeth up their wounds. He telleth the number of the stars; He calleth them all by their names." Ps. 147:3, 4. And when he has studied the book of the Pleiades and their sweet influences, and Orion and his bands, and knows that He can "bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades, and loose the bands of Orion," he will also know that He can bind up the broken heart and heal the wounded spirit, and loose the bands of sin and evil habits that hold his soul in bondage. He will then be better able to appreciate, and more ready to accept, the call to "Seek Him that maketh the seven stars [the Pleiades] and Orion." Amos 5:8.TOP

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY -- Physical geography of the sea, as well as of the land, will be a study in all Christian schools: that

p 198 -- is the science of the winds and the waves, the atmosphere, the rain, the dew, the ocean tides, the ocean itself. One of the texts may be: "The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits." Eccl. 1:6. With that as the text, the teacher will lead the students into the study-book of the course of the winds as they come out of the north, as they go toward the south, as they whirl about continually, and as they return again according to their circuits. He will lead the students into the books that give the science of the winds, and so will conduct the students along the course of the circuit of the winds. Then the students will know that the wind has a circuit as certainly as the sun a course, and that the gentlest breeze that fans the cheek on a summer's day is wafted by the hand of Him who "causeth His wind to blow," and "maketh the winds His messengers."

Another text may be: "All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rives come, thither they return again." Eccl. 1:7. That will be the text: the study-book will be whatsoever in the science, the philosophy, and the literature of the subject will give to the student the actual facts, the procedure, and the means by which God, in calling "for the waters of the sea, and "pouring "them out upon the face of the earth" (Amos 5:8), picks up the water from the sea, transports it over the earth, and pours it out again - two hundred and fifty-five cubic miles

p 199 -- of water every twenty-four hours: how "He causeth the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth," till
"by watering He wearieth the thick cloud," and then "maketh lightnings" to pierce the thick cloud "for the rain," causing "it to come, whether for correction, or for His land, or for mercy."

As thus there is studied how God "calleth for the waters of the sea" that He may pour "them out on the face of the earth," the sea itself will be found a wonderful study-book. Why is it that the waters that are called from the sea and poured out upon the face of the earth are perfectly fresh, while the waters of the sea are extremely salt? Why is the sea salt? What wonderful and vital consequences flow from the fact that in the beginning God made the sea salt instead of fresh? How is it that the greatest rivers of the world, and of water as warm as 86 degrees Fahrenheit, are in the oceans, one in the Atlantic and one in the Pacific: the one making the soft and beautiful climate of the British Isles, and the other that of the North Pacific Coast of America, while both these regions are in the latitude of bleak and frozen Labrador. How is it that by this mighty river in the Atlantic alone, there is transported and discharged perpetually a quantity of heat "sufficient to raise mountains of iron from zero to the melting point, and to keep in flow from them a molten stream of metal greater in volume than the waters daily discharged from the Mississippi River"? How is it that in God's calling for the waters of the sea, and pouring them out upon the

p 200 -- face of the earth in the form of snow, in producing a quantity of those fragile crystals that a child might easily hold in his hands, there is exerted power sufficient to pick up one of the mightiest of Alpine stone- avalanches and toss it to twice the height whence it started? TOP

"In the pursuit of this subject, the mind is led from nature up to the Great Architect of nature; and what mind will the study of this subject not fill with profitable emotions? Harmonious in their action, the air and sea are obedient to law and subject to order in all their movements. When we consult them in the performance of their manifold and marvelous offices, they teach us lessons concerning the wonders of the deep, the mysteries of the sky, the greatness, and the wisdom, and the goodness of the Creator, which makes us wiser and better men. The investigations into the broad-spreading circle of phenomena connected with the winds of heaven and the waves of the sea are second to none for the good which they do and the lessons which they teach. The astronomer is said to see the hand of God in the sky; but does not the right-minded mariner, who looks aloft as he ponders over these things, hear His voice in every wave that `claps its hands,' and feel His presence in every wind that blows? Unchanged and unchanging alone, of all created things, the ocean is the great emblem of its everlasting Creator. `He
treadeth upon the waves of the sea,' and is seen in the wonders of the deep." "The seas lift up their voice," "the waves clap their hands," at the presence of the Lord; and "deep calleth unto deep at the noise of Thy

p 201 -- waterspouts;" for "The Lord hath His way in the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds are the dust of His feet."

BOTANY -- Botany must be studied in Christian schools everywhere: however, as already observed, not botany as the term is commonly understood, as a "science" in which the flowers are considered only under an unpronounceable name, in a foreign language, and are torn to pieces to be studied, and each part given another such name. Not that, but the flowers themselves as they are as made by God, and as they grow, as an expression of the thought of God. One of the texts may be: "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow." Then, the lily itself, and how it grows - with all the history, the literature, and the science of the lily - will be the study-book. That will be the field of study on that text. And for what purpose? Why does Jesus tell us to "consider the lilies of the field, how they grow;" that is, to study the lily? - For the reason stated in that other place where it is written: "Israel ... shall grow as the lily." Christians, even the students themselves, are to grow, under God, as the lily grows. Jesus tells every student to study the lily, to see and know how it grows, so that he may know how he himself is to grow. He is to find in the lily the life and the power of God by which it grows, - the means which God employs in the sunshine, the soil, the dew, and the rain, to cause it to grow, - and the science and philosophy of the growing itself, so that

p 202 -- he may know how God will cause him himself to"grow as the lily." Then, every student studying botany that way, only so far as the lily is concerned, will, whenever he sees a lily, get from that lily a lesson direct from God, telling him what God is doing in his life, and what God will put into his life by his believing on Him. TOP

Another text may be: He "shall revive as the corn, and grow as the vine." That is the text; and the study-book will be the corn and the vine themselves, in all the science, the philosophy, the literature, and the Scripture that can be found relating to the nature of the corn and the vine. "Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit." "I am the true Vine, and My Father is the Husbandman." "Ye are the branches." Thus the corn and the vine will be the study-book for the student who has in the Bible the text, Israel "shall revive as the corn, and grow as the vine." Then whenever he sees either corn or vine anywhere, it will speak to him lessons of instruction and experience, in the language of God.

Another thing: It is impossible to "consider" the flowers, the corn, the vine, the trees, "how they grow," without considering them as they grow where they are growing. This takes the student into the garden, the fields, the woods, where by every faculty of his being he can be receiving instruction from the great Teacher. And thus, instead of as a sluggard sitting in a house and studying the dead and dried-up forms of ants, butterflies, and other creeping or flying things which

p 203 -- some "scientist" has caught and cruelly impaled alive, teachers and students will be in harmony with the instruction of the divine Teacher: "Go to the ant, thou sluggard." Do not sit and wait lazily for some "scientist" or hired boy to catch the ant and bring it dead to you; do not even be so indolent as to be content with sitting in the house and reading what has been written by some live and sensible person who did "go to the ant." No: go yourself. "Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways" - not consider especially herself, but "consider her ways " - and be wise." And this which is thus learned from the flowers and trees, from the beasts, the birds, and creeping things, is a deeper knowledge than can be learned from printed books. Collect all the words and shades of meaning in our language on a subject, and yet all this will fall far short of expressing the fulness of thought that is conveyed to the mind and heart when, for instance, the delicate and demure little violet speaks in its own native and divine language to one who understands. TOP

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY -- From any part of creation there are open doors inviting the open-eyed student into every other part. An exceedingly pleasing one of these is from botany to natural philosophy. There are flowers which produce no seed, but grow only from the roots of their kind. There are flowers also which have their seeds in themselves after their kind. Of this latter kind is the innocent and chaste snowdrop. "Botanists tell us that the constitution of this plant is such as to require

p 204 -- that, at a certain stage of its growth, the stalk should bow its head, that an operation may take place which is necessary in order that the herb should produce seed after its kind; and that, after this fecundation, its vegetable health requires that it should lift its head again and stand erect." And in this delicate balancing of that little flower there is wrapped up the philosophy of gravitation, which is simply the balancing of the universe. For "if the mass of the earth had been greater or less [than it is], the force of gravity would have been different; in that case the strength of fiber in the snowdrop, as it is, would have been too much or too little; the plant could not bow or raise its head at the right time; fecundation could not take place; and its family would have become extinct with the first individual that was planted, because its `seed' would not have been `in itself,' and therefore it could not have reproduced itself, and its creation would have been a failure."

Therefore, "philosophy teaches us that, when was created the little snowdrop which in our garden walks we see raising its beautiful head, at 'the singing of birds,' to remind us that `the winter is over and gone,' the whole mass of the earth, from pole to pole, and from circumference to center, must have been taken into account and weighed, in order that the proper degree of strength might be given to its tiny fibers." And one of the Scripture texts that tell this philosophical truth is Isa. 40:12: "Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and meted out

p 205 -- heaven with the span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance ?" The hills are balanced with the mountains, the mountains with the earth, the earth with the waters, with the air, and also with the tiny flower that grows from its bosom, and all with the grand universe throughout.

"God made the earth, the air, and the water; and the whole arrangement of the animal and vegetable kingdoms; just as they are and in exact counterpoise. If it were not so, why was power given to the winds to lift up and transport moisture, and to feed the plants with nourishment? or why was the property given to the sea by which its waters may become vapor, and then fruitful showers or gentle dews? If the proportions and properties of land, sea, and air were not adjusted according to the reciprocal capacities of all to perform the functions required by each, why should we be told that He `measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and meted out heaven with a span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance'? Why did He mete `out the heaven with the span,' but that He might mete out the atmosphere in exact proportion to all the rest, and impart to it those properties and powers which it was necessary for it to have, in order that it might perform all those offices and duties for which He designed it?" TOP

"In contemplating the system of terrestrial adaptations, these researches teach one to regard the moun-

p 206 -- tain ranges and the great deserts of the earth as the astronomer does the counterpoises to his telescope - though they be mere dead weights, they are, nevertheless, necessary to make the balance complete, the adjustments of his machine perfect. These counterpoises give ease to the motions, stability to the performance, and accuracy to the workings, of the instrument. They are `compensations.'

"Whenever I turn to contemplate the works of nature, I am struck with the admirable system of compensation, with the beauty and nicety with which every department is poised by the others: things and principles are meted out in directions apparently the most opposite, but in proportions so exactly balanced and nicely adjusted that results the most harmonious are produced. It is by the action of opposite and compensating forces that the earth is kept in its orbit, and the stars are held suspended in the azure vault of heaven. And these forces are so exquisitely adjusted that, at the end of a thousand years, the earth, the sun, the moon, and every star in the firmament, is found to come and stand in its proper place at the proper moment."

This law or system of compensations is called gravitation. The word "gravitation" is derived from the word gravus, signifying "weight." The law of gravitation is the law by which each particle of matter in the universe draws with its full weight upon, attracts, or is balanced with, every other particle. Another Scripture text that tells this truth of natural philoso-

p 207 -- phy, and also defines what gravitation is, is Heb. 1:1-3: "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by His Son, whom He hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made the worlds; who being the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power:"

This "power" of the creative and mighty Word of God is the true definition of gravitation. For gravitation is that by which all things are balanced and held in place: that by which all things are held up. Yet in the field of accepted science alone, that is as far as a student is generally allowed to go. He may ask, What holds all things up? The answer is, Gravitation. He may then ask, What is gravitation? The answer usually is, That which holds all things up: or its equivalent. But that is not a valid answer: it is only asking him to move in a circle, and find no goal. Now, in a Christian school, when it is taught that the law, or system of balances, according to which all things are held up and in their relative places, is gravitation; and then the earnest student honestly asks, But what is gravitation itself? the answer is, The present, immanent power of the living Word of God. In Christian education no student is ever left in a maze, nor is he asked to move in a circle. He is taught to the limit, and caused to stand face to face with God, in whom mind and heart find rest and satisfaction as the Fountain of knowledge. TOP

p 208 -- Chapter XX - Literature, History, Law, Logic. - The English language and English literature must be studied in Christian schools: "Our own tongue, second to that of Greece alone in force and copiousness:" "our own literature, second to none that ever existed." And in this field, as in every other proper one, the Bible stands preeminent.

As to the language, the English of the Bible is the purest and best English that there is in the world. There are in the Bible more pure English words, and better English words, than in any other book in the English language. Then, whoever would become acquainted with the purest and best English must study the English of the Bible.

In the English of the Bible there is more said in fewer words than in any other writing in the world. This directness and forcefulness, this true weightiness, is the characteristic of the language of the Bible above that of all other writings. And the person whose vocabulary is composed most fully of the words,the phraseology, and the forthrightness of the Bible, will be the most direct and forcible speaker or writer, will be able to say most in fewest words.

The Bible holds such an immense advantage over all other matter in English that to it it belongs by true

p209 -- merit to be the beginning of all study in English literature, and the basis and guide of all study of English literature in other books. Yet this is not all. To say that the Bible is deservedly the beginning, basis, and guide in the study of English literature is not enough. The Bible in itself alone is a whole English Literature. This truth has been best expressed by Macaulay, in his allusion to the Bible as "that stupendous work, the English Bible - a Book which, if everything else in our language should perish, would alone suffuce to show the whole extent of its beauty and power." - Essay on Dryden. No one who is acquainted with the English Bible, and the spirit of it, and with other literature in English, will question for a moment this estimate of the wealth of the Bible as English Literature. In the Bible there is every phase of literature that is involved in the art of human expression, or in the portrayal of human feeling. And the transcendent merit of the Bible in all this is that it is all true. Its scenes are all adopted from real life, and are drawn to the life. They are not "founded on fact:" they are fact.

On the other hand, how much of that which is studied to-day as English literature, in the schools, colleges, and universities, is true? Is not nine-tenths of it fiction? And is it not the fictional that stands the highest in these schools, as literature? What can give a man prominence to-day in the world of English literature more quickly than the writing of a popular novel? Even a minister of the gospel, an earnest, godly, powerful minister of the gospel, never can gain the promi-

p 210 -- nence, even among people who profess the gospel, by simply preaching the gospel of the Word of God, that he is assured of by the writing of a popular novel: and especially if he writes two or three, and so demonstrates that he has special ability as a novelist. That is to say, his standing as a minister of the Word of God, which is truth, is made to be dependent on his popularity as a producer of fiction!* TOP

Now which is better, which is the more Christian for Christians, or for a Christian school - to study English literature that is inferior in quality, and is fictional besides, or to study it in that "Book which, if everything else in our language should perish, would alone suffice to show the whole extent of its beauty and power," and which, in addition, is all the very perfection of truth - the truth of God! To ask the question is certainly only to answer it, in the mind of every Christian and in the mind of every person who would receive a Christian education.

When this can all truly be said of the Bible as compared with the literature of Christendom, what shall not be said of it in contrast to the literature of paganism? "It has come to be generally recognized that the classics of Greece and Rome stand to us in the position of an ancestral literature, - the inspiration of our great masters, and bond of common association between our

* Another notable and pernicious defect in the study of English literature is that from it true it has degenerated to the study and exaltation of the man who wrote it. This would be a total missing of the true aim in the study of literature, when the men who are studied and exalted are worthy of such notice; but in many cases these men are utterly unworthy to be brought to the attention of youth in any such connection.

p 211 -- poets and their readers. But does not such a position belong equally to the literature of the Bible? If our intellect and imagination have been formed by the Greeks, have we not in similar fashion drawn our moral and emotional training from Hebrew thought? Whence, then, the neglect of the Bible in our higher schools and colleges?

"It is one of the curiosities of our civilization that we are content to go for our liberal education to literatures which, morally, are at an opposite pole from ourselves: literatures in which the most exalted tone is often an apotheosis of the sensuous, which degrade divinity, not only to the human level, but to the lowest level of humanity. Our hardest social problem being temperance, we study in Greek the glorification of intoxication. While in mature life we are occupied in tracing law to the remotest corner of the universe, we go at school for literary impulse to the poetry that dramatizes the burden of hopeless fate. Our highest politics aim at conserving the arts of peace; our first poetic lessons are in an Iliad that can not be appreciated without a bloodthirsty joy in killing. We seek to form a character in which delicacy and reserve shall be supreme, and at the same time are training our taste in literatureswhich, if published as English books, would be seized by the police. TOP

"I recall these paradoxes, not to make objection, but to suggest the reasonableness of the claim that the one side of our liberal education should have another side to balance it. Prudish fears may be unwise, but

p 212 -- there is no need to put an embargo upon decency. It is surely good that our youth, during the formative period, should have displayed to them, in a literary dress as brilliant as that of Greek literature - in lyrics which Pindar can not surpass, in rhetoric as forcible as that of Demosthenes, or contemplative prose not inferior to Plato's - a people dominated by an utter passion for righteousness, a people whom ideas of purity, of infinite good, of universal order, of faith in the irresistible downfall of all moral evil, moved to a poetic passion as fervid, and speech as musical, as when Sappho sang of love or AEschylus thundered his deep notes of destiny." Richard G. Moulton, professor of Literature in English in Chicago University, "The Literary Study of the Bible" preface, p. xii.

It has been truly said of the book of Isaiah alone, that "It may be safely asserted that nowhere else in the literature of the world have so many colossally great ideas been brought together within the limits of a single work." This can be extended to include the whole Bible, and it still be equally true.

So also the following:       "Even in literary form the world has produced nothing greater than Isaiah; and the very difficulty of determining its literary form is so much evidence how cramped and imperfect literary criticism has been made by the confinement of its outlook to the single type of literature which has come to monopolize the name 'classical.' But when we proceed to the matter and thought of Isaiah - the literary matter, quite apart from the theology founded on it -

p 213 -- how can we explain the neglect of such a masterpiece in our plans of liberal education? "It is the boast of England and America that their higher education is religious in its spirit. Why is it, then, that our youth are taught to associate exquisiteness of expression, force of presentation, brilliance of imaginative picturing, only with literatures in which the prevailing matter and thought are on a low moral plane? Such a paradox is part of the paganism which came in with the Renaissance, and which our higher education is still too conservative to shake off." "Modern Reader's Bible," Isaiah, preface. p. xxiv.

Shall it be that Christians in their education will still refuse to shake off this paganism? Shall not the supreme Christian literature - the Bible - have its own supreme place alone at every stage and in every phase of Christian education? TOP

HISTORY. -- History, both national and church, as separate, as related and as interrelated, is an essential study in all Christian schools. And for the study of universal history, of national history, and of church history, from the Flood until now, and to the end of the world, the Bible is the one grand text-book, the Book of fundamental and sure-guiding principles. There alone are given the origin and distribution of the race. There alone are given the origin and causes of history. There alone are given the origin and causes of civil government, of the state, of monarchy, of empire.

"The God of nature has written His existence in all

p 214 -- His works, and His law in the heart of man." He has written His character in the Bible and His providence amongst the nations. He "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;" "He divided to the nations their inheritance;" "that they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after Him, and find Him, though He be not far from every one of us." "God hath spoken once; twice have I heard this; that power belongeth unto God." "There is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God." "He is the Governor among the nations." "The Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will." "He removeth kings, and setteth up kings;" "calling from a far country the man that executeth His counsel."

"History, therefore, with its dusty and moldering pages, is to us as sacred a volume as the book of nature;" for history properly studied is but the study of the progress of the grand purposes of God through all the vicissitudes of man and the nations. History thus studied is found to be far more than a record of marches, battles, and sieges in the rise and fall of nations: far more than the story of the Nimrods, the Pharaohs, the Alexanders, Caesars, and Napoleons. All these events and persons will to be found to be but incidents in the far greater story of the significance of events, and of the real meaning of the life of man and nations on the earth: only incidental to the grand

p 215 -- philosophy of things that is over all and through all and in all. "History" has been aptly defined as
"philosophy teaching by example." But upon this as upon other subjects the important question is, What philosophy? Shall it be a human philosophy conjured up and read into the "example," or extracted from the example? or shall it be the divine philosophy revealed and preceding all, and so being really philosophy teaching, and philosophy really teaching, by example? In the Bible alone is found the philosophy of universal history.

In history as in other studies the Bible supplies the text, stating the principle, the leading fact, or a symbolical description, each of which contains a volume: this for the text and guide, then all that can be found in the Bible, in native inscriptions, or in any other writings on that subject, will be the studybook. The Bible, as it stands from Genesis to the captivity to Babylon, is the true text-book of the history, both national and church, of that period. From the captivity to Babylon to the end of the world, that portion of the Bible from the captivity to Babylon unto the end of the Book is the text-book of the whole history, both national and church. And in this portion of the Bible the books of Daniel and Revelation are the keys: Daniel especially to national history, and Revelation especially to church history.

When once this secret of history is found, he who finds it will be surprised to find how much of the history of the world there is in the Bible alone. Instances

p 216 --- will be found in which, with the exception of dates and individual names, the whole history of a nation is told in from one to half a dozen verses in the Bible. Take, for instance, Dan. 7:4: "The first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it." That one verse tells the whole history of the Babylonian Empire. And when all that has been elsewhere written on that subject has been read, it will be found that, though more specific facts and details and the names of men are told, not more of the truth of the story is told than is couched in the symbolism of that one verse. Indeed it will be found that all that is elsewhere written of the history of the Babylonian Empire is truly but the filling in of the expressive outline thus drawn. There are in the Bible enough other such instances to make a book; but this is sufficient to illustrate the principle of the Bible as the text-book and guide in the study of history.

LAW. -- Law is a subject that must be studied in Christian schools; and the Bible must be the only text-book - not law as the term is used and generally understood by lawyers and judges in earthly courts; but as the term is used and understood by the Judge in the Court of heaven - law as it is in the divine principles of justice and righteousness: law as it is involved in the guilt and the justification, the sin and the forgiveness, of man.

p 217 -- This study is also essential for the instruction of youth in the principles of daily conduct. It is painful to see the indifference of professed Christians to the principles of daily justice and righteousness between man and man as they are made perfectly plain in the Scriptures, especially in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Deuteronomy.

The truth is that every Christian should read, over and over, simply for the principles of daily justice and fair and honest dealing, Exodus 20-24; Leviticus 19, 25; and the book of Deuteronomy; until these principles become his very life; then read and reread the sermon on the mount, and the first eight, and from the twelfth to the fourteenth, chapters of Romans. All this as the study of law as such, in the fundamental principles of law that must be manifested in the conduct of the daily affairs of Christian life and Christian business. Every Christian, and especially every Christian who occupies any position of responsibility or trust in institutions or business of either God or men, should read over and over these portions of Scripture. These principles faithfully inculcated upon the minds and graven upon the hearts of youth in school, will be worth a thousand times more both to them and to the world than can be all the human law in the world. TOP

LOGIC. -- Logic must be studied in Christian schools. And the Bible must be the only text-book; not the logic of Aristotle, or of any other man; not the formal logic that is in the books; but the logic is manifested in

p 218 -- the divine reasoning that is in the Bible. That is, the Word of God must be studied until the very thoughts in that Word shall become the thoughts of the one who studies; until the reasoning, the logic, of the Word of God shall be his reasoning; yea, till the very mind that gave the Word of God shall become his mind.

This only is Christian logic. And only such study as this is the study of Christian logic. In this the Bible is not only the text-book, but also the study-book. For is it possible to find truer logic, sounder reasoning, than in the divine reasoning? And has not the Author of reason extended the invitation to all people, "Come now, and let us reason TOGETHER"? What more blessed invitation, what higher honor, what grander prospect, than this could ever be placed before a reasoning mind?

However, the time would fail us to take up every subject within the field of true knowledge and education; we can not exhaust the Bible as the true educational book. But it is earnestly hoped that what has in these pages been presented may awaken attention, and turn the allegiance of Christians to the Bible in its true place in education. For it is literally true that there is nothing in the world that can create mental capacity and give intellectual power as will the study of the Word of God as pleaded for in this book.

One of the defenses that is offered in behalf of the study of the pagan "classics" in the face of their essential immorality, is that "the idea is not that the student shall gather the philosophy, or the instruction, that is

p 219 -- in this literature; but it is used primarily as the best means of developing the mind, of creating mental vigor, of increasing intellectual power." For the occasion let the validity of this plea be admitted. A student is conducted through that course unto its completion. Suppose the impossible, that he has been successful in excluding from his mind the immoral substance of the matter studied; and has attained the full benefit of its power to create capacity. What must be the result? - A superior capacity; but what is in it? He has the capacity, if you will; but as for any real good, it is empty. And let nobody ever forget that with mankind as it is in this world, and especially in these days, every degree of capacity that is ever created and not filled with that which is good, will inevitably be occupied with that which is not good. And therein lies the perniciousness of the proposition that the years of the most receptive and formative period in the lives of youth can be largely spent in literatures that are essentially immoral, and yet the immorality that is in the very substance of the literature find no place in their minds! That can no more be so than that they can carry fire in their bosoms and they not be burned, or handle pitch and they not be defiled. TOP

The true philosophy of education is to develop capacity only with the good; and to develop it no faster than can it be filled with the good, the useful, and the practical. Let Christians hold only to the education that will put into the mind only that which is good, true, useful, and practical. The Bible as the basis of

p 220 -- all education and the text-book in every line of study, will assure this. The philosophy of it is this: Christian education, true education, is of faith. Faith comes by the Word of God. As this faith which comes by the Word of God is exercised in the Word of God and upon the Word of God, it "groweth exceedingly," and thus develops capacity on its own part. On the other side, the righteousness of God is revealed to each degree of the exercise and development of faith; "from faith to faith." And the righteousness of God is an expanding principle. Thus capacity is developed also from that side. And so the capacity being developed from the side of the individual by the exercise and exceeding growth of faith, and from the side of God by the expanding power of the righteousness of God revealed to each degree of exceedingly growing faith; with no degree of capacity developed that is not filled to the full with the supremely good and true; and this all accomplished through the Word of God; the Bible thus stands as the greatest educating power in the world. And the Scripture text that expresses the principle is Col. 1:9, 10:1 cease not "to pray for you, and to desire that ye might be filled with the knowledge of His will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; that ye might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God." "Filled" and yet "increasing:" ever "filled" and ever "increasing," unto the being "filled with all the fulness of God."

Thus the Bible as the basis of all education has the true philosophy in it.

p 221 -- Christian education is more than the cultivation of the intellectual part of man: it is the cultivation of the moral as supreme, and the highest possible cultivation of the intellectual only as tributary to the supremely moral. Yet neither is it the cultivation of only the intellectual and the moral: it is also the cultivation of the physical as well. And this, too, as tributary to both the intellectual and the moral.

Morality is the only security in education. And Christianity is the only true morality. Christian education, therefore, is the symmetrical and the highest possible cultivation of every faculty, - physical, intellectual, and moral, - in order to glorify God on the earth, and finish the work that He has given Christians to do.

One day the writer and a graduate of a prominent university, who was at the time also the editor of a leading magazine in the United States, were talking together of the principles and view of education that are now presented in this book. When the principle of it was clearly caught, the university graduate and editor exclaimed: "Why, with such a system as that in full operation, every one of your schools will be a university; and every teacher will be a genius - he will have to be."

It is true. When Christians truly get God's view of education, and carry it out in the Spirit and power of God, it is true that every Christian school will be a university. It will not be called that, for those Christians will hold modest views of their abilities and attainments; but it will be that. With the universal Book as

p 222 -- the text-book; with the universe itself as the study-book; with the universal Teacher as the Head of each school; and with teachers who are guided and taught by the universal Spirit; what but true universities can such schools be? The greatest consideration in it all is that in this way the student is always living and thinking and walking and working with God. And that alone is a university. TOP

p 223 -- Chapter XXI - The Failure of Popular Education. - Serious complaint is made and for years has been made of the failures of the whole system of education as conducted, from the primary grades to the university and the theological seminary. These
complaints are not made by mere carping critics, but by the leading and most responsible educators of the whole country. One of the leading magazines - the Cosmopolitan - published a series of articles extending through a whole year, pointing out the serious defects in the system, under the significant inquiry, "Does a College Education Educate?" The articles were written by acknowledged masters in education. The Outlook, one of the leading religious weeklies of the country, has had much to say in the same direction. The Ladies' Home Journal, in the delightfully plain and winning style of its editor, has not spared to declare whole and wholesome counsel in the matter. President Eliot, of Harvard University, one of the leading educators not only of the United States, but of the world, being in position to speak with authority on the subject, has done so in no uncertain terms: in set addresses to educators pointing out that "the shortcomings and failures in American education, and the disappointments concerning its results, have been many and griev-

p 224 -- ous." Even the United States Senate was obliged to take cognizance of this subject; and with disappointing results.

A few illustrative extracts are here presented. At the annual meeting of the Connecticut State Teachers' Association in New Haven, Oct. 17, 1902, President Eliot, of Harvard, delivered an address "advocating the expenditure of more money for education in the United States on the ground that the shortcomings and failures in American education have been many and grievous." The following is a summary in his own words of the evidences of the failure of popular education: -
1.   Drunkenness. - "For more than two generations we have been struggling with the barbarous vice of drunkenness, but have not yet discovered a successful method of dealing with it. The legislation of the states has been variable and in moral significance uncertain.

"In some of the states of the Union we have been depending on prohibitory legislation, but the intelligence of the people has been insufficient either to enforce such legislation or to substitute better."

2.   Gambling. - "The persistence of gambling in the United States is another disappointing thing to the advocates of popular education, for gambling is an extraordinarily unintelligent form of pleasurable excitement. It is a prevalent vice among all savage people, but one which a moderate cultivation of the intelligence, a very little foresight, and the least sense of responsibility should be sufficient to eradicate." TOP

3.   Bad Government. - "It must be confessed that the results of universal suffrage are not in all respects what

p 225 -- we should have expected from a people supposed to be prepared at school for an intelligent exercise of suffrage. We have discovered from actual observation that universal suffrage often produces bad government, especially in large cities."

4.   Crime, Mob, and Riot. - "It is a reproach to popular education that the gravest crimes of violence are committed in great number all over the United States, in the older states as well as in the new, by
individuals and by mobs, and with a large measure of impunity. The population produces a considerable number of burglars, robbers, rioters, lynchers, and murderers, and is not intelligent enough either to suppress or to exterminate these criminals."

5.   Bad Reading. - "The nature of the daily reading supplied to the American public affords much ground for discouragement."  "Since one invaluable result of education is a taste for good reading, the purchase by the people of thousands of tons of ephemeral reading matter, which is not good in either form or substance, shows that one great end of popular education has not been attained."

6.   The Popular Theater. - "The popular taste is for trivial spectacles, burlesque, vulgar vaudeville, extravaganza, and melodrama, and the stage often presents to unmoved audiences scenes and situations of an unwholesome sort."

7.   Medical Delusions. - "Americans ... are the greatest consumers of patent medicines in the known world, and the most credulous patrons of all sorts of `medicine men' and women, and of novel healing arts."

8.   Labor Strikes. - "That labor strikes should occur more and more frequently, and be more and more widespread,

p 226 -- has been another serious disappointment in regard to the outcome of popular education. As we have all seen lately, the strike is often resorted to for reasons not made public, or, at least, not made public until after the strike has taken place."

On "the educational processes of our time" - the prevailing "skeptical, analytical, critical process of inquiry and investigation;" the process in which "Doubt is the pedagogue which leads the pupil to knowledge;" the Outlook, April 21, 1900, remarks: -
"Does he study the human body? - Dissection and anatomy are the foundations of his study.

"Chemistry? - The laboratory furnishes him the means of analysis and inquiry into physical substances. TOP

"History? - He questions the statements which have been unquestioned heretofore, ransacks libraries for authorities in ancient volumes and more ancient documents.

"Literature? - The poem which he read only to enjoy he now subjects to the scalpel, inquires whether it really is beautiful, why it is beautiful, how its meter should be classified, how its figures have been constructed.

"Philosophy? - He subjects his own consciousness to a process of vivisection in an endeavor to ascertain the physiology and anatomy of the human spirit, brings his soul into the laboratory that he may learn its chemical constituents.
"Meanwhile the constructive and synthetic process is relegated to a second place, or lost sight of altogether.
"Does he study medicine? - He gives more attention to diagnosis than to therapeutics, to the analysis of disease than to the problem how to overcome it.

"Law? - He spends more time in analyzing cases

p 227 -- than in developing power to grasp great principles and apply them in the administration of justice to varying conditions.

"The classics? - It is strange if he has not at graduation spent more weeks in the syntax and grammar of the language than he has spent hours in acquiring and appreciating the thought and the spirit of the great classic authors. It has been well and truly said of the modern student that he does not study grammar to understand Homer, he reads Homer to get the Greek grammar.

"His historical study has given him dates, events, a mental historical chart; perhaps, too, it has given him a scholar's power to discriminate between the true and the false, the historical and the mythical in ancient legends; but not to many has it given an understanding of the significance of events, a comprehension of, or even any new light upon, the real meaning of the life of man on the earth.

"Has he been studying philosophy? - Happy is he if, as a result of his analysis of self-consciousness, he has not become morbid respecting his own inner life, or cynically skeptical concerning the inner life of others.

"It is doubtless in the realm of ethics and religion that the disastrous results of a too exclusive analytical process and a too exclusive critical spirit are seen. TOP

"Carrying the same spirit, applying the same methods, to the investigation of religion, the Bible becomes to him simply a collection of ancient literature, whose sources, structure, and forms he studies, whose spirit he, at least for the time, forgets; worship is a ritual whose origin, rise, and development he investigates; whose real significance as an expression of penitence, gratitude, and consecration he loses sight of altogether. Faith is a series of tenets whose biological development he traces; or a form of consciousness whose relation

p 228 -- to brain action he inquires into; or whose growth by evolutionary processes out of earlier states he endeavors to retrace: forgetting meanwhile what is the meaning of the experience itself as a present fact in human life, what vital force and significance it possesses.

"Vivisection is almost sure sooner or later to become a post-mortem; and the subject of it, whether it be a flower, a body, an author, or an experience, generally dies under the scalpel. It is for this reason that so many students in school, academy, and college lose, not merely their theology, which is perhaps no great loss, but their religion, which is an irreparable loss, while they are acquiring an education."

The city of Washington is credited with having the best schools and the best school system in the United States. But there came to the United States Senate Committee on District of Columbia so many complaints concerning the work done in those schools that the Senate appointed a committee to investigate the whole subject. What this committee found will be suggested by the following notice of their report to the Senate, published in the literary supplement of the New York Times, June 23, 1900, under the heading "Queer School Work": -        "There was an investigation to find about what was the condition of the pupils on their entrance into the high schools at the average age of fourteen. At that point they had had all the schooling they were expected to get in arithmetic; they had been studying the history of their country for five years; and they were, in the words of the trustees, believed to be `able to dispose correctly of almost any English sentence.' Practically they had reached the limit of the advantages that the

p 229 -- great body of the children in any large city can get from the public schools, and were supposed to be ready for that `higher' teaching which only a small fraction of those children can afford to take.

"It seems that in Washington the methods of teaching are supposed to be of a peculiarly advanced character, and `the one best adapted to train the minds of children and youth, and to teach them to think and to express themselves clearly.' As early as in the fifth grade, when the children are about ten years old, emphasis is `laid upon powers and roots, square measure, cubic measure, cube root.' History was taught so that `the child possessed a clear, connected, sequential view of the whole subject selected.' In the teaching of English the process is thus described: -

 " ' The work of the fourth grade, of finding the base of the sentence, was continued, more and more
difficult sentences being mastered; the idea asserted was differentiated as to identity, condition, place, time, size, etc., and action; and finally the idea was analyzed for its elements. Here the child began the study of the parts of speech, in addition to being required to know the sentence - as a whole, its parts, bases, modifiers, asserters - whether emphatic, potential, absolute, etc., and what is asserted.'

"The result of the examinations, which were framed by the Civil Service Commission, was distinctly discouraging. In arithmetic, where nothing was required but a knowledge of the four fundamental rules and fractions, the pupils of only one school, some 350 out of 1,300, attained the average of 70 per cent, the lowest that would admit to the eligible list for common clerical work, while less than 30 per cent in all the schools reached that average, and only 7 per cent attained a marking of 90 per cent, which is the average of those

p 230 -- who succeed in entering the service. As the schooling in arithmetic was completed, this is a bad showing.

"In history it was worse yet. Only 3.6 per cent made 90, only 19 per cent made 70, and the total average was but 53.1 per cent. One of the questions asked was as follows: -

"'Give a brief account of the Puritans, or of the Pilgrims, stating why so called, the country from which they came, their reasons for emigrating, where they settled, and some of their characteristics, habits, and customs.'

"Some of the answers throw light on the 'clear, connected, sequential view of the whole subject,' which the pupils are supposed by the fond trustees to get. For instance: -

"`Pilgrims were called pilgrims because they pilgrimed and journed.'

"`The pilgrims prayed for providence which was at times granted to them.'

"`The exiles from england were called Pilgrims after the rocky coast of Plymouth upon which they landed.'

"`The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock early in the spring in a small boat called the May-Flower. TOP

When they landed they were few in number. Being opposed to the weather many died. Their clothing was not very thick for winter and their shelter did not protect the cold, wind, rain, and snow from coming in.'

"These answers also give some idea of the ability acquired by the pupils to 'dispose quickly of almost any English sentence,' as do the varied modes of spelling the names of states. Florida appears as Florda, Florido, Florada, Floridy, and floriday. Massachusetts becomes in succession Massachusettes, Massachuesettes, Masschusetts, Masschusettes, masschsuetts, Massachtusettes, and Massachewsettes.

p 231 -- "We have no wish to condemn the entire system of teaching in Washington from this report: it does not reveal enough about it. And we are well aware of the diabolic ingenuity of stupidity of which even well-taught children are sometimes capable; but we submit that children in the state disclosed by the facts we have cited are not fit subjects for `higher' tuition, and that until the results of effort below the grade they have reached are very much better, the money and energy expended on that higher tuition are wasted - and worse."

When such is the record as to the educational work in the supposedly best school system in the United States, what must it be in the worst! And that this is most probably a fair showing is confirmed by the fact that, in 1900, Columbia University found itself compelled to make the common spelling-book a fixture in its curriculum, because of the barbarous inability to spell that was revealed in the matriculation papers of college graduates who applied for admission.

On the need of "a better system of education" in this country a contributor to the Outlook, in 1899, said: -

"There must be in this country a better system of education, a system that is in closer touch with life, and that fits rather than unfits for life. There must be something in our common schools that will make for self-respect, and for that respect for others that is a part of true self-respect; something that will develop faithfulness and intelligence and pride in work; something that will link head and hands by indissoluble bonds. Domestic science and manual training in schools will gradually give a greater respect for manual labor; and with this respect should go a greater diffu-

p 232 -- sion of manual labor; for the lack in our present system is quite as much on the side of employers as of employed.

"An intelligent and many-sided woman recently remarked to me that Queen Victoria would be a better woman if she made her own bed daily. While it may not be practicable for queens to make their own beds, or for the President of the United States to chop his own wood, there never will be faithfulness, respect, and intelligence on the side of the workers unless the same attitude toward work is found in the employers." TOP

This same thought and the need of industrial education was emphasized in 1901 by the introduction in the House of Representatives in Congress the following: -

                                                                               "A BILL
"To establish a general system of industrial education in the territories of the United States and insular dependencies.

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled:   That there shall be established in all the territories subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, including the District of Columbia and the recently-acquired islands, a system of primary industrial education, to the end that all children may become intelligent, skilful, efficient, and self-supporting citizens.

"Section 2. - That in these schools agriculture and the ordinary arts of civilized life shall be taught practically to all youth who apply between the ages of thirteen and eighteen. Instruction shall include the sciences which underlie these arts, and every pupil shall be required to work with his hands not less than four hours daily under the direction of such schools, with

p 233 -- adequate farms, buildings, and a competent force of teachers, and that such schools be free of debt; provided further, that all pupils shall work with their hands for four hours daily for five days of each week of the term."

Of the need and the value of this, Prof. Edward Daniells, of Washington, D. C., wrote thus: -

"This system will cost millions, but it will soon return tenfold. TOP

"Ignorance is the curse of the land! Not of books, but that more dangerous kind that, wrapped in the conceit of shallow culture, poses for learning and deceives the masses! The old monkish system has had its day; what was good in it has been lost in the growth of the moss and fungus of ages. The mentality of childhood is stunted, dwarfed, and smothered. In the cities it is already yielding to nature study, manual training, and some slight ameliorations. But the country youth are growing up in hopeless savagery in many states."

In urging "The Needs of American Public Education" in order to redeem it from its "many and grievous shortcomings and failures," in a public address delivered before the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction, Oct. 23, 1902, President Eliot so admirably covered the whole ground that we can do no better than to present the principal points of that address.

SCHOOLHOUSES AND GROUNDS. - He urged increased expenditure of money, and this money spent first of all in making all school buildings as nearly as possible perfectly fire-proof and sanitary. To this latter end he offered the following wise suggestion: -

p 234 -- "All flues, ducts, and boxes for the reception and conveyance of cold or hot air should be so built and disposed that their interiors can be cleaned. Any one who has examined with a lens the extraordinary amount of animal and vegetable matter which accumulates on a sheet of 'tangle-foot' fly-paper placed in a cold-air box, at any season of the year when the ground is not covered with snow, will heartily concur in this prescription. The observance of these rules would, of course, demand additional initial expenditure on school buildings, but would diminish the cost of maintenance." TOP

As to the school grounds, he presented the following beautiful thought: -

"Whether in town or country, a large open space, yard, or garden should surround every school building, and should be kept with neatness and decorated with shrubs and flowers."

HEALTH OF THE PUPILS. -"Next to this improvement in schoolhouses and schoolyards comes improvement in the sanitary control and management of schools. This control requires the services of skilful physicians; and such a physician should be officially connected with every large school. It should be his duty to watch for contagious diseases, to prevent the too early return to school of children who have suffered from such diseases, to take thought for the eyes of the children lest they be injured in reading or writing by bad postures or bad light, to advise concerning the rectification of remediable bodily defects in any of the children under his supervision, to give advice at homes about the diet and sleep of the children whose

p 235 -- nutrition is visibly defective, and, in short, to be the protector, counselor, and friend of the children and their parents with regard to health, normal growth, and the preservation of all the senses in good condition.

"Such medical supervision of school-children would be costly, but it would be the most rewarding school expenditure that a community could make, even from the industrial or commercial point of view, since nothing impairs the well-being and productiveness of a community so much as sickness and premature disability or death. As in an individual, so in a nation, health and strength are the foundations of productiveness and prosperity."

BETTER TEACHERS. - "The next object for additional expenditure is better teachers. Of course, teachers should know well the subjects which they are to teach; but that is by no means sufficient. Every teacher should also know the best methods of teaching his subjects. College professors heretofore have been apt to think that knowledge of the subject to be taught was the sufficient qualification of a teacher; but all colleges, as well as all schools, have suffered immeasurable losses as a result of this delusion."

-"With better teachers, numerous other improvements would come in, as, for instance, a better teaching of literature and of history, and better biological and geographical instruction, these natural history studies

p 236 -- being pursued by the pupils in the open air as well as in the school-rooms. TOP

"I have elsewhere urged that all public open spaces, whether country parks, forests, beaches, city squares, gardens, or parkways, should be utilized for the instruction of the children of the public schools by teachers capable of interesting them in the phenomena of plant and animal life. But this means quite a new breed of common-school teachers.

"The teaching of geography in the open air is a delightful form of instruction; but it requires a teacher fully possessed of the principles of physiography, and knowing how to illustrate these principles on a small scale in gutters, brooks, gullies, ravines, hillsides, and hilltops.

"Some nature study of this desirable sort has been already introduced into American schools; but it is not persisted in through years enough of the school course. There is needed much more of this sort of study, beginning in the kindergarten and going through the high school."

BETTER PROGRAMS. -- "An expensive improvement in the public schools, but one urgently needed, is the enrichment of the school program for the years between nine and fourteen, and the introduction of selection among studies as early as ten years of age. Unless this is done, and done soon, the public schools will cease to be resorted to by the children of well-to-do Americans. The private and endowed schools offer a choice of foreign languages,

p 237 -- for instance, as early as ten years of age and even earlier; and everybody knows that this is the age at which to begin the study of foreign languages, whether ancient or modern. In large cities it seems to be already settled that the private and endowed schools get the children of all parents who can afford to pay their charges. One reason for this result is that the programs of the public schools are distinctly inferior to the programs of the good private and endowed schools; and they are inferior at precisely this point - they have too limited a range of studies in the years between nine and fourteen. It is, of course, not desirable that each individual child should pursue a great variety of studies; but it is essential that each individual child should have access to a variety of studies."

MANUAL TRAINING. - "In many scattered places in the United States perfect demonstration has already been given that manual training and instruction in the mechanical arts and trades are in the first place, valuable as means of mental and moral training, and, in the second place, useful for the individual toward obtaining a livelihood, and for the nation toward developing its industries. Accordingly, manual training schools, mechanic arts high schools and trade schools ought to become habitual parts of the American school system; and normal schools and colleges ought to provide optional instruction in these subjects, since all public school teachers ought to understand them. Such schools are more

p 238 -- expensive than schools which do not require mechanical apparatus and the service of good mechanics as instructors; but there can be no doubt that they will repay promptly their cost to the community which maintains them." TOP

VACATION SCHOOLS. - "Vacation schools, have also demonstrated their great usefulness in cities and large towns. The best ones offer manual training for both boys and girls, as well as book work, and are heartily welcomed by both parents and children. They combat effectively the mistaken policy of long vacations for children who can not escape from the crowded city streets and tenements. Indeed, the experience recently gained in city vacation schools and in the summer courses of colleges and universities proves that the long summer vacation of nine to thirteen weeks is by no means necessary to the health of either schoolchildren or maturer students. The best method is to keep the pupil in vigor all the year by means of frequent recesses during school hours, free half-days twice a week, and occasional respites of a week.

"Then the vacation school in summer should offer a distinct variety of work in subjects different from those pursued the rest of the year; for children and adults alike find great refreshment in mere change of work. For example, the competent college professor may indeed seek change of air and scene during the summer vacation, but it is for the purpose of doing under advantageous conditions a kind of intellectual work

p 239 -- different from that which engrosses him in term-time, and not with the intention of keeping his mind vacant or inert.

"Furthermore, vacation schools in the poor quarters of closely-built cities are downright refuges from the physical squalor and moral dangers of the streets. It is obvious that vacation schools on an adequate scale must cause a serious addition to school expenditure of a city or large town; for they require the services of an additional corps of teachers, and they need additional apparatus, materials, and service. It is equally obvious that these schools are urgently needed by a large proportion of the population on grounds which are simultaneously physical, mental, and moral." TOP

THE CHURCH RECREANT. - "The church and its ministers can not be said to have risen in public estimation since the Civil War. Its control over education has distinctly diminished. In some of its branches it seems to cling to archaic metaphysics and morbid poetic imaginings; in others it apparently inclines to take refuge in decorums, pomps, costumes, and observances. On the whole, . . . it has shown little readiness to rely on the intense reality of the universal sentiments to which Jesus appealed, or to go back to the simple preaching of the gospel of brotherhood and unity - of love to God and love to man. So the church as a whole has to-day no influence whatever on many millions of our fellow-countrymen - called Jews or Christians, Protestants or Catholics though they be.

p 240 -- "We still believe that the voluntary church is the best of churches; because a religion which is accepted under compulsion is really no religion at all for the individual soul, though it may be a social embellishment or a prop for the state. Yet, believing thus, we have to admit that the voluntary church in the United States has no hold on a large and increasing part of the population.

"By no positive fault of their own, but by a sort of negative incapacity, legislature, court, and church seem to be passing through some transition which temporarily impairs their power ... To redeem and vivify legislatures, courts, and churches, what agency is so promising as education?"

THE NEED OF THE MASSES. -- "We should ask ourselves what better remedy than wise popular education, what other remedy, can be imagined for the new evils which threaten society because of the new facilities for aking huge combinations of producers, or middlemen; of farmers, or miners, or manufacturers; of rich or poor; of laborers or capitalists?

"Masses of men are much more excitable than average individuals, and will do in gregarious passion things which the individuals who compose the masses would not do. A crowd is dangerously liable to sudden rage or - what is worse - sudden terror, and either emotion may overpower the sense of responsibility and annihilate for the moment both prudence and mercy. There never was a time when common sentiments and

p 241 -- desires could be so quickly massed, never a time when the force of multitudes could be so effectively concentrated at a selected point for a common purpose.

"Against this formidable danger there is only one trustworthy defense. The masses of the people must be taught to use their reason, to seek the truth, and to love justice and mercy. There is no safety for democratic society in, truth held, or justice loved, by the few; the MILLIONS must mean to do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with their God. The millions must be taught to discuss, not fight; to trust publicity, not secrecy; and to take timely public precautions against every kind of selfish oppression. ... The common schools should impart the elements of physical, mental, and moral training, and in morals the elements are by far the most valuable part. TOP

"Concerning an educated individual, we may fairly ask, Can he see straight? Can he recognize the fact? Next, can he draw a just inference from established facts? Thirdly, has he self-control? or do his passions run away with him? or untoward events daunt him? These are fair tests of his mental and moral capacity. One other test we may fairly apply to an educated individual - does he continue to grow in power and in wisdom throughout his life? His body ceases to grow at twenty-five or thirty years of age - does his soul continue to grow?"

A writer in one of England's leading magazines, of February, 1903, the Nineteenth Century, in an article entitled "The Disadvantages of Education,"

p 242 -- covers practically the same ground as did President Eliot in his addresses: and to the same end - the short-comings and failures of education in England, consequently the urgent demand for reform, yet with the recognition of the truth that "not only in Great Britain, but everywhere, it seems clear that it would be unreasonable to expect that the schools should reform themselves. Therefore reforms must come from outside, unless education is to remain what it is - an elaborate sham, with science in its mouth, but in reality a course of cramming, destructive to common sense."

The extracts presented in this chapter most forcibly emphasize not only the world's sore need of a better system of education, but also the world's knowledge of this need, and its longing for that which will satisfy the need. These extracts also emphasize the truth that nothing short of a system of education built upon the principles advocated in this book - true Christian education - can ever possibly satisfy this great need of a better system of education. The defects and demands of popular education, as presented in these extracts, show that only an education that is positively Christian in the very spirit and power and morals of genuine Christianity, can ever answer the call. President Eliot, in very words, calls for such an education as will cause "the millions" of "democratic society" to "mean to do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with their God." In very words his goal is "the perfecting of an intelligent individual citizenship in a Christian democracy."

p 243 -- Now it is impossible for that goal ever to be attained without a teaching, an education, that is religious and Christian. And it is impossible for the State, or any system of State schools, ever to attain that goal; because the State can not possibly teach religion. This is so in the nature of things; but in the United States it is doubly so, because by the fundamental principles and Constitution of the nation there is declared a total separation of the State from religion, and particularly the Christian religion. The State can no more properly or safely use the religious method in its education than the Church can use the secular method in her education. The two realms are distinct, and they can not be blended without destruction to both the Church and the State. TOP

To the Church alone belongs the teaching of religion, the inculcation of morals, the promotion of Christianity. This is to say, therefore, that the only possibility of the better system of education ever being truly supplied, for the want of which the country is perishing, is in the Christian Church's supplying it. But lo! in the presence of this vital truth we are confronted by the deplorable fact concerning that which stands as the accepted Christian Church, that according to the words of both President Eliot and the United States Commissioner of Education, her "control over education" is a "distinctly diminishing" quantity. This conclusion of these two high authorities among the laity is confirmed by a master of theology in the Chicago University, writing, in 1899, in the following forcible words, that

p 244 -- every Christian heart and every observing person knows are altogether too true: -

"There is nothing more disappointing to evangelical religion than its great schools. The fearful stress which has fallen on the ... denominations during the last ten years has proceeded largely from the great schools fostered by these denominations. ... The very foundations of religious teaching are being undermined by teachers in our great schools, just as they have been in a large sense in the German universities. What is known as `higher criticism' is simply working havoc with the rising minority in the three-named denominations."

"There is no school on the American continent where a young man can go and learn the Bible as a whole under the direction of deeply pious and thoroughly learned teachers. There are schools where a young man fitting for the ministry can go and spend three years, and have himself stuffed with speculative philosophy under the name of theology, and with infidelity under the name of `higher criticism.' This is a positive and a burning shame. The writer cherishes the hope that some pious man or woman of means will found a school in this country where men can be trained who will not only know the Bible from first to last, but preach it from first to last. That would be something new under the sun."

This being the attitude and condition of that which stands as the accepted Christian Church, with respect to the education which the world is longing for; and the Christian Church being the only source of hope that this need in education can ever be truly answered; it follows inevitably that there must be a reformation,

p 245 -- a revival of vital Christianity, in these days as truly as there was before when that failed, as this has failed, which stood as the accepted Christian Church.

President Eliot looks to education as the promising agency "to redeem and vivify the churches." That is correct; but it must be an education that comes DOWN FROM HEAVEN, not up from the world, to the Church. And that education will come. The world's longing need, its hunger and thirst, which can be supplied only through the Church from heaven, and without which it must perish, God will never leave unfilled. God still lives. His loving care for man and nations is the same to-day as ever of old.

Education is indeed the only agency that can redeem and vivify the Church. That education can come only from heaven and from Him who is the Head of the Church. He will send that education, and it will come. And when it comes, it will come only in and through the Word of Him who is in heaven and who is the Head of the Church. That education will be conveyed and inculcated only in "terms of creation." The Church by which this education will be given to the world will be a Church that deals and communicates only in "terms of creation." The Instructor of that Church will be the Creator Himself through the creative Word by the creative Spirit. The principles and the standard of morals of that Church will be the moral law of the Creator, as written with His own finger on the tables of stone, as demonstrated in His life on earth in the flesh, and as written by His Spirit in fleshly

p 246 -- tables of the heart of the believer in Jesus. In all education conducted by this Church the text-book will be the Book of the Word of the Creator and Redeemer, and the study-book will be all creation and all redemption.

Thus that Church will be distinctly a universally educational Church. She will establish a system of education after this order; and will truly educate all who will receive the education. Though she will fully and truly supply that education for which the world is longing and expressing its sore need, yet neither this Church nor the education which she gives will be popular with the world. Rather she will be considered a straight-laced extremist. Nevertheless in this she will be right, absolutely and eternally right. She will be the true Church of to-day and for to-day. And the education which she will give will be the true education for to-day and forever.

Let all people who are longing for a better system of education, who are looking for a system that will fully supply all needs in education, - let all these open their eyes and look prayingly to see that heavenly educational Church; and God will cause them to see her. Now is her time. She must, and she will, arise and shine; and the glory of the Lord will be seen upon her. And this is the Church which Christ will present to Himself at His coming, "a glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but ... holy and without blemish."

End of book

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